THE GIST of Editorial for UPSC Exams : 17 June 2020 (For better conditions of work (The Hindu))

For better conditions of work (The Hindu)

Mains Paper 2:Governance
Prelims level:cooperative societies
Mains level: Welfare measures for the vulnerable sections of the society


  • After a stressful lockdown period, thousands of migrant workers have returned to their villages. Many have said they wish to stay there.
  • They no longer yearn to go back to their work in the cities. This is understandable given their terrible living conditions in the cities and the shocking treatment meted out to them during the lockdown period.
  • This is an opportunity for those working to provide workers security, those involved in the cooperative movement, those trying to improve the living conditions in rural India, and those working in the area of skill development to reach out to, and enable, the migrant workers to fulfill their desire of staying at home.

Forming cooperative societies:

  • Back home, the migrants can form cooperative societies. So can MGNREGA workers.
  • Many migrant workers said they worked as tailors in the cities, many as plumbers, some as cooks, and some as construction workers.
  • All of them can form cooperatives.

What will be the purpose of these cooperatives?

  • These cooperative societies, if they expand and form hubs, could start developing their services or products that can be sold with better terms and conditions.
  • For example, if in a village in Bihar several tailors come together to form a cooperative society of tailoring, they could attract contracts from garment manufacturers in Bihar and also elsewhere.
  • There are many government agencies that have been mandated to help build cooperative societies. There are also cooperative banks to help such societies.
  • With large national institutions e............................


Role of NGO’s Federations:

  • NGOs and cooperative federations, agencies such as the National Cooperative Union of India, and labour unions can intervene, especially since many workers have said they do not have work in the village but they also do not want to move elsewhere.
  • The AMUL project is a model of one kind, but there are other, lesser-known models which are not as sophisticated and fair in terms of wages and other terms as AMUL but still offer ideas for today.
  • India has examples of putting-out work in several industries.
  • There are many deeply exploitative system where the women on contractual work had poor salaries and no benefits.
  • Cooperatives, on the other hand, can get the same process done without the middle man.
  • MGNREGA has been offered as a way of alleviating migrant workers’ distress but this is not only a short term but also vulnerable wage-earning occupation.
  • Sites cannot be opened during the monsoon season. Also, at any given area, there may not be enough sites to engage many people.
  • So another possibility is to give MGNREGA better shape so that MGNREGA funds can be used to enable women or artisans to market their products.

A pyramid of group economic activity:

  • This is a valuable opportunity for the state to build new kinds of economic structures in India, a pyramid of group economic activity going from the rural areas through collective marketing to fill the demand from the cities.
  • What has been lacking so far in this dispersed production model is lack of concern for the fair treatment of the workers.
  • In Mangaluru, a beedi worker said.............................



Prelims Questions:

Q1. With reference to the social bubbles, consider the following statements:
1. A social bubble is a close-set of people i.e. like family, with whom we interact on a regular basis.
2. Research published by the London School of Economics and Political Science says that the concept of social bubbles proved effective against coronavirus pandemic.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: ....................................


Mains Questions:
Q1.  How to be formed cooperative societies? What will be the purpose of these cooperatives?