DO YOU KNOW ?: THE INDO-US NUCLEAR DEAL: BASIC FACTS
India and the United States signed a landmark deal in October 2008, which allows
India access to US civil nuclear fuel and technology. What is it that makes this
deal so significant? How does India stand to gain from it? Here are some answers
to these questions:
the Indo-U.S. Civilian Nuclear Deal?
This is a
deal between India and the United States for civil nuclear cooperation.
Under this agreement, the United States can sell civilian nuclear fuel and
technology to India. India in turn, has to separate its civil and military
nuclear facilities and place all its civil nuclear facilities under
International Atomic Energy Association (IAEA) inspection. The accord took
three years to be finalized, during which it went through a series of
complex stages that included amendment of U.S. domestic law, formulation of
a civil-military nuclear separation plan in India, an India-IAEA safeguards
(inspections) agreement and the grant of an exemption for India by the
Nuclear Suppliers' Group (NSG).
the Hyde Act and the 123 Agreement?
Section 123 of its Atomic Energy Act, the United States can enter into
civilian nuclear trade only with those countries that have signed the NPT
and CTBT. India has signed neither treaty. Further, after its first nuclear
test in 1974, the United States had placed a ban on the supply of nuclear
fuel and technology to India. In order to sign the present deal, the section
123 of the Atomic Energy Act needed to be amended. The Hyde Act 2006, a
domestic Act of the United States, was accordingly brought in to amend this
Section and provide a legal framework for a 123 Agreement with India. With
this agreement India becomes the only non-NPT/CTBT signatory to have signed
the 123 Agreement with the United States.
the Nuclear Suppliers Group?
Suppliers Group (NSG) is a 45 nation body concerned with reducing nuclear
proliferation by controlling trade in nuclear fuel and technology. Their
policies had so far kept India out of bounds of international nuclear trade
as it has not signed the NPT and CTBT. Some countries in the NSG had
misgivings about giving India the unprecedented waiver of carrying on
international civil nuclear trade even without signing the NPT, but the
approval finally came through keeping in view India's strong
non-proliferation records, and its voluntary declaration of "no first use"
of nuclear weapons.
India get from the Agreement?
Civil nuclear deal has paved the way for the growth of the nuclear power
sector in India, which has so far been plagued by shortages of nuclear fuel.
India has limited reserves of Uranium, which is the crucial fuel needed at
the present stage of our nuclear power program. Due to the shortage of
nuclear power generation is only about 1800 Mw against an installed capacity
of 4120 Mw. With the present agreement, which is valid for 40 years and
extend able by another 10 years, India hopes to address this fuel shortage.
Under this agreement the US is committed to ensure uninterrupted fuel supply
to safeguard Indian reactors and create strategic fuel reserves for them,
and also work with other NSG countries to ensure. supply of nuclear fuel to
India. The ambit of the deal includes research, development, design,
construction, operation, maintenance and use of nuclear reactors, reactor
experiments and decommissioning. To ensure smoothness, the agreement
provides for elaborate consultations between the two parties in the event of
either side wanting to terminate the deal before its normal time.
the agreement also lays down the clause of "non-interference" in India's
strategic program. Thus, the Indian nuclear power program stands to get a
much needed push without any threat to its strategic program.
does India give?
of the bargain India has agreed for separation of its nuclear facilities,
placing the civilian facilities under IAEA safeguards in perpetuity. The
safeguard is aimed at ensuring that the nuclear material or technology
brought in for civilian purposes is not diverted for military use. Out of
its 22 operating/under construction nuclear facilities, India will place 14
under IAEA safeguard.
Current Affairs Home Page
Copyright © 2010 www.upscportal.com