DO YOU KNOW ?:
REDUCING GHG EMISSIONS: THE KYOTO MECHANISMS
The Kyoto Protocol has put in
place three flexibility mechanisms to reduce emission of Green House Gases.
Although the Protocol places maximum responsibility of reducing emissions on the
developed countries by committing them to specific emission targets, the three
mechanisms are based on the premise that reduction of emissions in any part of
the globe will have the same desired effect on the atmosphere, and also that
some developed countries might find it easier and more cost effective to support
emissions reductions in other developed or developing countries rather than at
home. These mechanisms thus provide flexibility to the Annexure I countries,
helping them to meet their emission reduction obligations. Let us take a look at
what these mechanisms are.
What are the three flexibility
mechanisms put in place of the Kyoto Protocol for reducing GHG emission?
What is Joint Implementation?
Through the Joint
Implementation, any Annex I country can invest in emission reduction
projects (referred to as joint Implementation Project) in any other Annex I
country as an alternative to reducing emissions domestically.
Two early examples are change
from a wet to a dry process at a Ukraine cement works, reducing energy
consumption by 53 percent by 2008-2012; and rehabilitation of a Bulgarian
hydropower project, with a 267,000 ton reduction of C02 equivalent during
What is Clean Development
The Clean Development Mechanism
(CDM) allows-'l developed country with an emission reduction or
emission-limitation commitment under the Kyoto Protocol to implement an
emission reduction project in developing countries as an alternative to more
expensive emission reductions in their own countries. In exchange for the
amount of reduction In emission thus achieved, the investing gets carbon
credits which it can offset against its Kyoto targets. The developing
country gains a Step towards sustainable development.
To get a CDM project registered
and implemented, the investing country' has to first take approval from the
designated national authority in the host country, establish "Additionally",
define baselines and get the project validated by a third party agency,
called a Designated Operational Entity (DOE). The Executive Body of CDM
registers the project and issues credits, called Certified Emission
Reductions (CERs), or carbon credits, where each unit is equivalent to the
reduction of one metric tonne of. C02 or its equivalent. There are more than
4200 CDM projects in the pipeline as on 14.3.2010. The expected CERs till
the end of2012 is 2,900,000,000
What is "Additionality" in a CDM
The feature of "additionality"
is a crucial element of a CDM project it means that the industrialized
country that is seeking to establish the CDM project in the developing
country and earns carbon credits from it has to establish that the planned
carbon reductions would not have occurred on its own, in the absence of the
CDM project. They have to establish a baseline of the project. Which is the
emission level that would have been there in the absence of the project. The
difference between this baseline level and the (lower) emission level
achieved as a result of the project is the carbon credit due to the
What are some of the concerns
regarding CDM ?
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