(Current Affairs) Important Points Of Water Resources In India

Important Points Of Water Resources In India

  • The supply-demand gap for water is projected to rise to about 50% by 2030, with demands doubling from current levels of 700 billions cubic meters to around 1498 billion cubic meters, and supply barely reaching 744 billion cubic meters.

  • Even after years of work on Ganga and Yamuna Action Plans, and crores of rupees spent, we have not managed to clean up these rivers.

  • The average annual rainfall in the country has been estimated about 1170 millimeters (mm). This, along with the, total snowfall and glacier melt in terms of Volume works out to about 4000 bil1ion cubic meters (bcm). However due to losses through evaporation and evapo-transpiration, the water availability in the country has been assessed to be about 1869 bcm.

  • Even this available water cannot be fully utilized due to topographical constrainta and hydrological features and utilizable water has been estimated to be about 1123 bcm comprising of 690 bcm of surface water and 433 bcm of replenishable ground water.


  • Only about 62 million hectare (mha) or about 44% of the cropped area in the country is reporteed as irrgated todya

Drinking water supply:

  • The access to safe drinking water sources in urban areas of India was about 90% in the year 1990 and 93 % in the year 2000 and this has improved ed to about % by the year 200 ' n rural India access to safe drinking water sources has increased from about 58% in 1990 to about 73% in the year 2008


  • India is endowed with estimated hydropower potential of more. Than  1500 mega watts. However, only about 21 % of the potential been developed so far and a further 10% being developed.

Flood Management:-

  • The total flood prone area in the country has been estimated to be about 46 million hectares.

  • A network of 175 flood forecast station is also maintained which provide reasonably accurate forecast to help in warning and advance actions to reduce the damages from incoming flood.

Challenges in Water Sector:-

  • The per capita availability of water in 1951 was assessed to be 5177 cubic meter. Due to increase in population, urbanization and industrialization this has come down to about 1650 cubic meter.

The five goals identified for the National Water Mission are:-

  • Comprehensive data base in public domain and assessment of impact of climate change on water resources.

  • Promotion of citizen and state action for water conservation and augmentation.

  • Focused attention to vulnerable areas including over-exploited areas.

  • Increasing water use efficiency by 20%;

  • Promotion of basin level integrated water resources management.

  • The Ministry of Water Resources has taken up the development of a web-enabled Water Resources Information System in cooperation with the National Remote Sensing Centre of Department of Space

Improved Management:-

  • 13th Finance Commossion has provided special water sector management grant of RS 5000 crore for four years i.e., from 2011-12 to 2014-15, which is subject to setting up of a Regulatory Autority and avhieved the normatively assessed state-specific recovery of water chages.

Improving the efficiency of the Water facilites:-

  • The National Commission for Integrated Water Resources Development has assessed that irrigation efficiencies from surface water in India can be improved from the present level of 35 to 40% to about 65% to about 75%. With the improvement in efficiency – both through efficient end water use as well as by improving the efficiency of facilities created for irrigation.

Two Scheme Of RRR Of Water Bodies Approved

  • Two state sector schemes for Repair, Renovation and Restoration RRR) of water body have been approved by the government of India, the first one with external assistance with an outlay of Rs. 1500 crore and another with domestic support with an outlay of RS. 1250 core for implementation during the XI Plan period.

  • Under the scheme with external assistance, the Union Government provides central assistance to the extent of 25% of the project cost whereas 75% state share is to be borrowed from the World bank by the concerned states)

The main objectives of the scheme are:

  1. Comprehensive Improvement of water bodies including restoration.

  2. Improvement of catchments area of water bodies.'

  3. Community participation and self-supporting system for sustainable management for water bodies covered by the program.

  4. Ground Water Recharge.

  5. Increase in storage capacity of water bodies.

  6. Improvement in agriculture/horticulture productivity.

  7. Environmental benefits through improved water use efficiency.

  8. Irrigation benefits through restoration of water bodies

  9. (X) Promotion of conjunctive use of surface and ground water/

  10. (XI) Development of tourism, cultural activities, etc.

  11. (XII) Increased availability of drinking water.

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