UPSC: Geologist Examination - Revised Syllabus


UPSC: Geologist Examination - Revised Syllabus


Current Year Syllabus :

1.The examination shall be conducted according to the following Plan :

Part I. - Written examination in the subjects as set out in para 2 below.
Part II. - Interview/ Personality Test of such candidates as may be called by the Commission,carrying a maximum of 200 marks.

2. The following will be the subjects for the written examination, for selection to the post of Geologist, Geophysicist and Chemist Group 'A' in GSI and Junior Hydro-geologist (Scientist 'B'), Group 'A' for Central Ground Water Board.

Subject Duration Maximum Marks
1. General English (common for all category) 3 hrs 100
Category - 1 For the post of Geologist    
2. Geology Paper I 3 hrs 200
3. Geology Paper II: 3 hrs 200
4. Geology Paper III: 3 hrs 200
Category - 2 For the post of Geophysicist    
2. Geophysics Paper I: 3 hrs 200
3. Geophysics Paper II: 3 hrs 200
4. Geophysics Paper III: 3 hrs 200
Category - 3 For the post of Chemist    
2. Chemistry Paper I: 3 hrs 200
3. Chemistry Paper II: 3 hrs 200
4. Chemistry Paper III: 3 hrs 200
Category - 4 For the Post of Jr. Hydrogeologist    
2. Geology Paper I 3 hrs 200
3. Geology Paper II 3 hrs 200
4. Hydrogeology 3 hrs 200

Note I: Candidates competing for selection to the posts of Geologist, Geophysicist, Chemist and Junior Hydrogeologist will be required to appear in all the subjects mentioned against respective category above.

Note II: Candidates competing for selection for both the posts of Geologist and Jr.Hydrogeologist will be required to appear in all the subjects mentioned against Categories 1 and 4 above.

Note III : If any candidate failed to appear in any one or more of above papers, meant for written examination for selection to the post of Geologist, Geophysicist, Chemist, their candidature shall stand rejected and part of written examination appeared by him/her shall not be evaluated and counted for any purpose.

GEOLOGY – PAPER I : 200 Marks

Section A : Geomorphology and Remote Sensing.

Introduction : Development, Scope, Geomorphic concepts, Types and Tools; Landforms: Role of Lithology, peneplaination, endogenous and exogenous forces responsible, climatic and Tectonic factors and rejuvenation of landforms; Denudational processes : Weathering , erosion, transportation, weathering products and soils – profiles, types, duricrusts; Hillslopes : Their characteristics and development, fluvial processes on hillslopes; River and drainage basin: Drainage pattern, network characteristics, Valleys and their development, processes of river erosion, transportation and deposition; Landforms produced by geomorphic agents: Fluvial, Coastal , Glacial and Aeolian landforms; Geomorphic indicators of neotectonic movements : Stream channel morphology changes , drainage modifications, fault reactivation, Uplift – subsidence pattern in coastal areas; Applied Geomorphology : Application in various fields of earth sciences viz. Mineral prospecting, Geohydrology, Civil Engineering and Environmental studies; Geomorphology of India: Geomorphical features and zones

Electromagnetic radiation – characteristics, remote sensing regions and bands; General orbital and sensor characteristics of remote sensing satellites; Spectra of common natural objects – soil, rock, water and vegetation. Aerial photos – types, scale, resolution, properties of aerial photos, stereoscopic parallax, relief displacement; Principles of photogrammetry; Digital image processing - characteristics of remote sensing data, preprocessing, enhancements, classification; Elements of photo and imagery pattern and interpretation, application in Geology; Remote sensing applications in interpreting structure and tectonics, Lithological mapping, mineral resources, natural hazards and disaster mitigation, groundwater potentials and environmental monitoring. Landsat, Skylab, Seasat and other foreign systems of satellites and their interpretation for geological and other studies; Space research in India – Bhaskara and IRS systems and their applications, Thermal IR remote sensing and its applications, Microwave remote sensing and its applications. Principles and components of Geographic Information System (GIS), remote sensing data integration with GIS, applications of GIS in various geological studies.

Section B: Structural Geology

Principle of geological mapping and map reading, projection diagrams. Stress-strain relationships for elastic, plastic and viscous materials. Measurement of strain in deformed rocks. Behaviour of minerals and rocks under deformation conditions. Structural analysis of folds, cleavages, lineations, joints and faults. Superposed deformation. Mechanism of folding, faulting and progressive deformation. Shear Zones: Brittle and ductile shear zones, geometry and products of shear zones; Mylonites and cataclasites, their origin and significance.Time relationship between crystallization and deformation. Unconformities and basement-cover relations. Structural behaviour of igneous plutons, diapirs and salt domes. Introduction to petrofabric analysis.

Section C: Geodynamics

Earth and its internal structure. Continental drift – geological and geophysical evidence and objections. An overview of plate tectonics including elementary concepts of plates, lithosphere, asthenosphere, types of plate boundaries and associated important geological features like oceanic trenches, volcanic arcs, accretionary wedges, topography of mid-ocean ridges, magnetic anomaly stripes and transform faults. Gravity anomalies at mid-ocean ridges, deep sea trenches, continental shield areas and mountain chains. Palaeomagnetism and its application for determining palaeoposition of continents. Isostasy, Orogeny and Epeirogeny. Seismic belts of the earth. Seismiciy at plate boundaries. Principles of Geodesy, Global Positioning System (GPS) and its application in crustal motion monitoring including neotectonics. Palaeoposition of India and Geodynamics of the Indian plate.

 Section D: Stratigraphy

Principles of Statigraphy : History and Development of Statigraphy; Stratigraphic procedures (Surface and Subsurface); Concept of Lithofacies and Biofacies; Stratigraphic Correlation (Litho, Bio- and Chronostrarigraphic Correlation); Study of standard stratigraphic code (Lithostratigraphic, Biostratigraphic and Chronostratigraphic); Concepts of Magnetostratigraphy, Chemostratigraphy, Event stratigraphy, and Sequence stratigraphy; Nomenclature and the modern stratigraphic code. Radioisotopes and measuring geological time. Geological time-scale. Stratigraphic procedures of correlation of unfossiliferous rocks. Precambrian stratigraphy of India : Achaean stratigraphy - tectonic frame-work, geological history and evolution of Dharwar, and their equivalents; Easterghats mobile belt; Proterozoic stratigraphy -tectonic framework, geological history and evolution of Cuddapahs and their equivalents. Palaeozoic stratigraphy: Palaeozoic formations of India with special reference to type localities, history of sedimentation, fossil content. Mesozoic stratigraphy: Mesozoic formations of India with special reference to type localities, history of sedimentation, fossil content. Cenozoic stratigraphy: Cenozoic formations of India, Rise of the Himalayas and evolution of Siwalik basin. Stratigraphic boundaries: Stratigraphic boundary problems in Indian geology. Gondwana Supergroup and Gondwanaland. Deccan Volcanics. Quaternary stratigraphy. Rocks record, palaeoclimates and palaeogeography.

Section E : Palaeontology

Evolution of the fossil record and the geological time scale. Basic and functional morphology of major fossil groups. Species concept; Major evolutionary theories ; Techniques in Palaeontology mega fossils- microfossils – nannofossils , ichnofossils – collection, identification and illustration – binomial Nomenclature; Invertebrate Palaeontology – A brief study of morphology, classification, evolutionary trends and distribution of Bivalves, cephalopoda and Gastropods, Echinoids, Corals and Brachiopods. Vertebrate Palaeontology – Brief study of vertebrate life through ages. Evolution of reptiles and mammals; Siwalik vertebrate fauna; Biodiversity and mass extinction events; evidence of life in Precambrian times; Palaeontological perspective : Use of palaeontological data in a) Stratigraphy b) Palaeoecology and evolution; Introduction to Micropalaeontology; Types of Microfossils; Plant fossils: Gondwana flora and their significance. Different microfossil groups and their distribution in India; Application of palynology. Basic idea about statistical application in palaeontology. Fundamentals of isotopic studies of fossils.

 GEOLOGY – PAPER II : 200 Marks

 Section A : Mineralogy and Geochemistry & Isotope Geology

External symmetry of crystals: Symmetry Elements, methods of projection, derivation of 32 classes, Hermaun Muguin notation. Internal symmetry of crystals: Derivation of 230 space groups, diffraction of crystals by X-rays, Braggs’ law. Principles of optical mineralogy : Optical mineralogy, polarized light, behaviour of isotropic and anisotropic minerals in polarized light, refractive index, double refraction, birefringence, sign of elongation, interference figures, 2V, dispersion in minerals. Optic sign, pleochroic scheme and determination of fast and slow vibrations and accessory plates. Introduction to mineralogy: Definition and classification of minerals. Structural and chemical principles of crystals / minerals, chemical bonds, ionic radii, coordination number (CN) and polyhedron. Structure, chemistry, physical and optical characters and paragenesis of mineral groups: Olivine, pyroxene, amphibole, mica and spinel groups; Feldspar, quartz, feldspathoid, aluminum silicate, epidote and garnet groups. Accessory minerals: Apatite, calcite, corundum, scapolite, sphene and zircon. Earth mineralogy: Average mineralogical composition of crust and mantle, mineral transformations in the mantle with depth.

Earth in relation to the solar system and universe, cosmic abundance of elements. Composition of the planets and meteorites. Structure and composition of earth and distribution of elements. Trace elements and REE and their importance in fractional crystallization during magmatic / partial melting. Elementary crystal chemistry and thermodynamics. Introduction to isotope geochemistry. Geochronology and age of the Earth: Law of Radioactivity; Principles of isotopic dating, Decay schemes and Derivation of equation of age. Rb/Sr, U- Th –Pb methods of dating the rocks. Age of the Earth. Geochemistry and principles of evolution of hydrosphere, biosphere and atmosphere. Geochemical cycle and principles of geochemical prospecting.

Section B : Igneous Petrology

Origin of magmas: Mantle, onset of partial melting of mantle, processes of partial melting in mantle, mantle-magmas in relation to degree and depth-level of partial melting. Phase equilibrium in igneous systems: Binary and ternary systems. Bowen's reaction principle: Reaction series and its application to petrogenesis. Magmatic evolution and differentiation: Fractional crystallization, gravitational differentiation, gas streaming, liquid immiscibility and assimilation. Structures and textures: Definition, description, rock examples and genetic implications of common structures and textures of igneous rocks. Classification of igneous rocks: Mode, CIPW norm, IUGS and other standard classifications; Magmatism and tectonics: Inter-relationship between tectonic settings and igneous rock suites. Igneous rock suites: Form, structure, texture, modal mineralogy, petrogenesis and distribution of Ultramafic rocks: Dunite-peridotite-pyroxenite suite; kimberlites, lamprophyres, lamproites, komatiites; Basic rocks: Gabbro-norite-anorthosite-troctolite suite, Dolerites; Basalts and related rocks; Intermediate rocks: Diorite-monzonite-syenite suite; Andesites and related rocks; Acidic rocks: Granite-syenite-granodiorite-tonalite suite; Rhyolites and related rocks; Alkaline rocks: Shonkinite, ijolite, urtite, melteigite, malignite, alkali gabbros, alkali basalt, alkali granite, alkali syenite, nepheline syenite and phonolite; Carbonatites; Ophiolite suite.

Petrogenetic provinces : Continental areas: Volcanic-Flood basalts-Tholeiites (Deccan Trap, Columbia River basalts); Layered gabbroic intrusions: The Bushveld complex, Skaergaard intrusion, Still water complex. Plutonic: Carbonatites and alkaline rock complexes of India; Oceanic Rift valleys: MORB- Tholeiites-Ophiolites

Section C : Metamorphic Petrology & Processes

Concepts and Theory: Types of Metamorphism and their controlling factors; Common minerals of metamorphic rocks; Field observations, petrographic classification of common metamorphic rocks; Metamorphic facies and facies series. Effects of Metamorphism : Phase diagrams and graphic representation of mineral assemblages; Prograde and retrograde metamorphism, Matasomatism; Deformation textures and textures related to recrystallization; Metamorphic reactions, elemental exchange and Pressure – Temperature conditions of Isograds; Mineral assemblages equilibrium/  reaction textures and geo-thermo barometry. Experimental and thermodynamic appraisal of metamorphic reactions; Role of fluids in metamorphic reactions. Metamorphism types and products: Regional and thermal metamorphism of pelitic rocks. Regional and thermal metamorphism of basic and ultrabasic rocks; Regional and thermal metamorphism of impure, silicious carbonate rocks; Metamorphism of Granitoides, Charnockites and Migmatites. Metamorphism in space and time: Plate tectonics and metamorphic processes; Paired metamorphic belts, Archaean and Proterozoic terrains; Extraterrestrial Metamorphism (Impact and Shock Metamorphism); polymetamorphism

Section D : Sedimentology

Provenance and diagenesis of sediments. Sedimentary textures. Framework, matrix and cement of terrigenous sediments. Definition, measurement and interpretation of grain size. Elements of hydraulics. Primary structures, palaeocurrent analysis. Biogenic and chemical sedimentary structures. Sedimentary environment and facies. Facies modeling for marine, non-marine and mixed sediments. Tectonics and sedimentation. Classification and definition of sedimentary basins. Sedimentary basins of India. Cyclic sediments. Seismic and sequence stratigraphy. Purpose and scope of basin analysis. Stratum contours and isopach maps.

Section E : Environmental Geology and Natural Hazards

Fundamental concepts of Environmental Geology - it’s scope, objectives, and aims. Earth’s thermal environment and Climates. Global warming. Green house effect. Ozone depletion–Ice sheets and fluctuation in sea levels. Concepts of ecosystem. Earth’s major ecosystems terrestrial and aquatic. Meteorology as environmental science. Air Pollution, sources of pollution, pollution due to dust and waste disposal. National and International standards. Environmental health hazards. Mining, opencast, underground, disposal of industrial and radio-active waste, dumping stacking, rehandling, management, mineral processing, tailing ponds, acid mine drainage, siltation, case studies. Mining below water table, mine water discharges, regional effects on water regime. Noise levels- national standards, mining machinery, ill effects. Air sampling techniques – respirable dust samplers, high volume air samplers, personal sampling pumps, weather monitoring equipments, automatic recorders. Elements of Environmental Impact Assessment – impacts, primary, secondary, prediction, assessment, base-line data generation, physical, biological, cultural, socioeconomic aspects. Carrying capacity based developmental planning – Assimilative capacity – supportive capacity – Resource based planning – Institutional strategies. Sustainable Developmental Planning - Applications of GIS in Environmental Management.Environmental Legislations in India.

Concepts and principles: Natural hazards – preventive/ precautionary measures – floods, landslides, earthquakes, river and coastal erosion. Distribution, magnitude and intensity of earthquakes. Neotectonics and seismic hazard assessment. preparation of seismic hazard maps. Impact of seismic hazards on long and short term environmental conditions. Mechanism of landslides, causes of major floods, cyclones and storms. Deforestation and land degradation. Coastal erosion, its causes and control of Geological hazards and crisis management.


GEOLOGY – PAPER III : 200 MARKS


 Section A: Indian mineral deposits and mineral economics

Occurrence and distribution in India of metalliferous deposits - base metals, iron, manganese, aluminium, chromium, nickel, gold, silver, molybdenum. Indian deposits of non-metals – Diamond, mica, asbestos, barytes, gypsum, graphite, apatite and beryl. Gemstones, refractory minerals, abrasives and minerals used in glass, fertilizer, paint, ceramic and cement industries. Building stones. Phosphorite deposits. Placer deposits, rare earth minerals. Strategic, critical and essential minerals. India’s status in mineral production vis a vis world scenario, Changing patterns of mineral consumption. UNFC classification, National Mineral Policy. Mineral Concession Rules. Marine mineral resources and Laws of Sea.

Section B: Ore genesis and Geophysics

Ore deposits and ore minerals. Magmatic processes of mineralization. Porphyry, skarn and hydrothermal mineralization. Fluid inclusion studies. Mineralisation associated with – (i) ultramafic, mafic and acidic rocks (ii) greenstone belts (iii) komatiites, anorthosites and kimberlites and (iv) submarine volcanism. Magma related mineralization through geological time. Stratiform and stratabound ores. Ores and metamorphism – cause and effect relations. Metallogeny and mineral belts. Interrelationship between geology and geophysics - Role of geological and geophysical data in explaining geodynamical features of the earth. General and Exploration geophysics - Different types of geophysical methods; Gravity, magnetic, Electrical, Seismic - their principles and applications. Geophysical field operations - Different types of surveys, grid and route surveys, profiling and sounding techniques, scales of survey, presentation of geophysical data. Application of Geophysical methods - Regional geophysics, ore geophysics, engineering geophysics. Geophysical anomalies : correction to measured quantities, geophysical, anomaly, regional and residual (local) anomalies, factors controlling anomaly, depth of exploration. Integrated geophysical methods - Ambiguities in geophysical interpretation, Planning and execution of geophysical surveys.

Section C: Mineral exploration

Resource, reserve definitions; mineral resource in industries - historical perspective and present. A brief overview of classification of mineral deposits with respect to processes of formation in relation to exploration strategies. Principles of mineral prospecting and exploration - conceptualization, methodology and stages; sampling, subsurface sampling including pitting, trenching and drilling, core and non-core drilling, planning of bore holes and location of bore holes on ground. Core logging, geochemical exploration- nature of samples anomaly, strength of anomaly and controlling factors, coefficient of aqueous migration. Principles of reverse estimation, density and bulk density, factors affecting reliability of reserve estimation, reserve estimation based on geometrical models (square, rectangular, triangular and polygon blocks ) regular and irregular grid patterns, statistics and error estimation. Application of Geophysical techniques, Geomorphological and remote sensing techniques and Geobotanical and geochemical methods. Application of geostatistical techniques in Mineral Exploration.

Section D: Geology of fuels

Coal and its properties: Different varieties and ranks of coal. Origin of coal. Coalification process and its causes. Lithotypes, microlithotypes and macerals: their physical, chemical and optical properties. Maceral analysis of coal: Mineral and organic matter in coal. Petrographical methods and tools of examination. Fundamentals of coal petrology, concept of coal maturity, peat, lignite, bituminous and anthracite coal. Application of coal geology in hydrocarbon exploration. Applications of coal petrography. Proximate and ultimate analyses. Indian coal & lignite deposits. Industrial evaluation of coal characteristics with reference to coal classification. Geology and coal petrography of different  coalfields of India. Uses of coal for various industries e.g. carbonization, liquefaction, power generation, gasification and coal-bed methane production.

Origin, migration and entrapment of natural hydrocarbons. Characters of source and reservoir rocks. Structural, stratigraphic and mixed traps. Techniques of exploration. Geographical and geological distributions of onshore and offshore petroliferous basins of India.

Mineralogy and geochemistry of radioactive minerals. Instrumental techniques of detection and measurement of radioactivity. Radioactive methods for prospecting and assaying of mineral deposits Distribution of radioactive minerals in India. Radioactive methods in petroleum exploration – well logging techniques. Nuclear waste disposal – geological constraints.

Section E : Engineering Geology

Geological studies and evaluation in planning, design and construction of major civil structures. Elementary concepts of rock mechanics and soil mechanics. Site investigation, characterization and roblems related to civil engineering projects: geological and geotechnical investigations for dams, reservoirs and spillways, tunnels, underground caverns, bridges, highways, shorelines. Problems of groundwater in engineering projects. Coastal geotechniques. Environmental considerations related to civil engineering projects. Resource evaluation of construction materials. Geological hazards (landslides and earthquakes), their significance, causes, preparedness and mitigation. Recent trends in geotechnical engineering. Geotechnical case studies of major projects in India.


Combined Geo-scientist and Geologist Examiination


HYDROGEOLOGY: 200 Marks

Section A: Origin, occurrence and distribution of water.

Water on earth; Types of water — meteoric, juvenile, magmatic and sea water; Hydrological Cycle and its components; Water balance; Water-bearing properties of rocks — porosity, permeability, specific yield and specific retention; Vertical distribution of water; Zone of aeration and zone of saturation; Classification of rocks according to their water-bearing properties; Aquifers; Classification of aquifers; Concepts of drainage basins and groundwater basins; Aquifer parameters- transrnissivity and storage coefficient; Water table and piezometric surface; Fluctuations of water table and piezometric surface; Barometric and tidal efficiencies; Water table contour maps; Hydrographs; Springs; Geologic and geomorphic controls on groundwater; Hydrostratigraphic units;Groundwater provinces of India. Hydrogeology of arid zones of India;Hydrogeology of wet lands.

Section B: Groundwater Hydraulics

Theory of groundwater flow; Darcy's law and its applications; Determination of permeability in laboratory and in field; Flow through aquifers; steady, unsteady and radial flow conditions; Evaluation of aquifer parameters of confined, semi-confined and unconfined °aquifers -Thiem, Thies, Jacob and Walton's methods; Groundwater modelling.

Section C: Groundwater Exploration and Water Well Construction

Geologic and hydrogeologic methods of exploration; Role of remote sensing in groundwater exploration; Hydrogeomorphic and lineament 'napping; Surface geophysical methods — seismic, gravity, geo-electrical and magnetic methods; Types of water wells and methods of construction; Design, development, maintenance and revitalization of wells; Sub-surface geophysical methods; Yield characteristics of wells; Pumping tests- methods, data analysis and interpretation;

Section 1): Groundwater Quality

Physical and chemical properties of water; Quality criteria for different uses; Graphical presentation of groundwater quality data; Groundwater quality in different provinces in India; Groundwater contamination; natural (geogenic) and anthropogenic contaminants; Saline water intrusion; Radioisotopes in hydroLteological studies.

Section E: Groundwater Management

Groundwater problems related to foundation work, mining, canals and tunnels; Over-expioitation of groundwater and groundwater mining; Groundwater problems in urban areas; Ground water management in arid and semi arid areas; Climate change impact on gioundwater resources; Concept of sustainable development of groundwater resources; Groundwater management —supply side and demand side management; Rainwater harvesting and managed aquifer recharge; Conjunctive use of su•face and groundwater; Groundwater legislation.


Revised Syllabus for Year 2020 


The Union Public Service Commission in consultation with the Government (Ministry of Mines, the Nodal Ministry) has decided to revise the Scheme, Pattern and Syllabi of the Combined Geo-Scientist and Geologist  examination.
The salient features of the same are as under:
(i) The nomenclature of this Examination has been changed to “Combined Geo-Scientist Examination” in place of “Combined Geo-Scientist and Geologist Examination”.
(ii) There will a three tier examination pattern i.e. (i) Stage-I : Preliminary Examination (ii) Stage-II : Main Examination (iii) Stage-III : Personality Test.
(iii) Preliminary Examination will screen the candidates for taking the Main Examination (Stage–II).
(iv) The Preliminary Examination will be of objective type having two Papers. Marks secured in this Examination will be counted for deciding the final  merit.
(v) The Preliminary Examination will be a Computer Based Examination. 
(vi) The Main Examination will have three Papers for each Stream and all Papers will be of descriptive type. Marks secured in this Examination will be counted for deciding the final merit.
(vii) Existing General English Paper has been discontinued.
(viii) The Revised Scheme, Pattern and Syllabi of the Examination will be made effective from the 2020 Examination to give sufficient preparation time to the aspirants.

2. The details of this revised Scheme, Pattern and Syllabi are attached.

Plan of Examination :

1. The Examination shall be conducted according to the following plan:—
(i) Stage-I: Combined Geo-Scientist (Preliminary) Examination (Objective Type Papers) for the selection of candidates for the Stage-II: Combined Geo-Scientist (Main) Examination;
(ii) Stage-II: Combined Geo-Scientist (Main) Examination (Descriptive Type Papers) and
(iii) Stage-III: Personality Test
2. The detailed scheme and syllabi of Combined Geo-Scientist Examination is as under:
A. Stage-I : Combined Geo-Scientist (Preliminary) Examination [Objective-type]:-
The Examination shall comprise of two papers.

Stream-I : Geologist  & Jr. Hydrogeologist

Subject

Duration

Maximum Marks

Paper-I : General Studies

2 Hours

100 Marks

Paper-II : Geology/Hydrogeology

2 Hours

300 Marks

Total

400 Marks

Stream-II  : Geophysicist

Subject

Duration

Maximum Marks

Paper-I : General Studies

2 Hours

100 Marks

Paper-II : Geophysics

2 Hours

300 Marks

Total

400 Marks

Stream-III : Chemist

Subject

Duration

Maximum Marks

Paper-I : General Studies

2 Hours

100 Marks

Paper-II : Chemistry

2 Hours

300 Marks

Total

400 Marks

B. Stage-II : Combined Geo-Scientist (Main) Examination [Descriptive-type]:-

The Examination shall comprise of three papers in each stream.

Stream-I : Geologist

Subject

Duration

Maximum Marks

Paper-I : Geology

3 Hours

200 Marks

Paper-II : Geology

3 Hours

200 Marks

Paper-III : Geology

3 Hours

200 Marks

Total

600 Marks

Stream-II  : Geophysicist

Subject

Duration

Maximum Marks

Paper-I : Geophysics

3 Hours

200 Marks

Paper-II : Geophysics

3 Hours

200 Marks

Paper-III : Geophysics

3 Hours

200 Marks

Total

600 Marks

Stream-III : Chemist

Subject

Duration

Maximum Marks

Paper-I : Chemistry

3 Hours

200 Marks

Paper-II : Chemistry

3 Hours

200 Marks

Paper-III : Chemistry

3 Hours

200 Marks

Total

600 Marks

Stream-IV  : Jr. Hydrogeologist

Subject

Duration

Maximum Marks

Paper-I : Geology

3 Hours

200 Marks

Paper-II : Geology

3 Hours

200 Marks

Paper-III : Hydrogeology

3 Hours

200 Marks

Total

600 Marks

C. Stage-III : Personality Test - 200 Marks

Syllabus of Combined Geo-Scientist (Preliminary) Examination :

Stage-I (Objective Type) :

Paper-I : General Studies (Common for all streams)

  • Current events of national and international importance.
  • History of India and Indian National Movement.
  • Indian and World Geography -Physical, Social, Economic Geography of India and the World.
  • Indian Polity and Governance -Constitution, Political System, Panchayati Raj, Public Policy, Rights Issues, etc.
  • Economic and Social Development – Sustainable Development, Poverty, Inclusion, Demographics, Social Sector initiatives, etc.
  • General issues on Environmental Ecology, Bio-diversity and Climate Change - that do not require subject specialisation
  • General Science


Stage-I (Objective Type) :

Paper-II : Geology/Hydrogeology

1. Physical Geology :

Principle of uniformitarianism; origin, differentiation and internal structure of the Earth; origin of atmosphere; earthquakes and volcanoes; continental drift, sea-floor spreading, isostasy, orogeny and plate tectonics; geological action of rivers, wind, glaciers, waves; erosional and depositional landforms; weathering processes and products.

2. Structural Geology :

Stress, strain and rheological properties of rocks; planar and linear structures; classification of folds and faults; Mohr's circle and criteria for failure of rocks; ductile and brittle shear in rocks; study of toposheets, V-rules and
outcrop patterns; stereographic projections of structural elements. 

3. Mineralogy :

Elements of symmetry, notations and indices; Bravais lattices; chemical classification of minerals; isomorphism, polymorphism, solid solution and exsolution; silicate structures; physical and optical properties of common rock
forming minerals- olivine, garnet, pyroxene, amphibole, mica, feldspar and quartz.

4. Igneous Petrology :

Magma types and their evolution; IUGS classification of igneous rocks; forms, structures and textures of igneous rocks; applications of binary and ternary phase diagrams in petrogenesis; magmatic differentiation and 
assimilation; petrogenesis of granites, basalts, komatiiites and alkaline rocks (carbonatite, kimberlite, lamprophyre and nepheline syenite).

5. Metamorphic Petrology :

Limits, types and controls of metamorphism; metamorphic structuresslate, schist and gneiss; metamorphic textures- pre, syn and post tectonic porphyroblasts; concept of metamorphic zone, isograd and facies; geothermal
gradients, facies series and plate tectonics.

6. Sedimentology :

Origin of sediments; sedimentary textures, grain-size scale; primary sedimentary structures; classification of sandstone and carbonate rocks; siliciclastic depositional environments and sedimentary facies; diagenesis of
carbonate sediments.

7. Paleontology :

Fossils and processes of fossilization; concept of species and binomial nomenclature; morphology and classification of invertebrates (Trilobites, Brachiopods, Lamellibranchs, Gastropods and Cephalopods); evolution in
Equidae and Hominidae; microfossils-Foraminifera, Ostracoda; Gondwana flora.

8. Stratigraphy :

Law of superposition; stratigraphic nomenclature- lithostratigraphy, biostratigraphy and chronostratigraphy; Archaean cratonic nucleii of Peninsular India (Dharwar, Singhbhum, and Aravalli cratons); Proterozoic mobile belts (Central Indian Tectonic Zone, Aravalli-Delhi and Eastern Ghats); Purana sedimentary basins (Cuddapah and Vindhyan); Phanerozoic stratigraphy of India- Spiti, Kashmir, Damodar valley, Kutch, Trichinopoly, Siwaliks and Indo-Gangetic alluvium.

9. Economic Geology :

Properties of mineral deposits- form, mineral assemblage, texture, rockore association and relationship; magmatic, sedimentary, metamorphic, hydrothermal, supergene and weathering-related processes of ore formation; 
processes of formation of coal and petroleum; distribution and geological characteristics of major mineral and hydrocarbon deposits of India. 

10. Hydrogeology :

Groundwater occurrence and aquifer characteristics, porosity, permeability, hydraulic conductivity, transmissivity; Darcy's Law in homogenous and heterogenous media; Bernoulli equation, Reynold's number; composition of groundwater; application of H and O isotopes in groundwater studies; artificial recharge of groundwater.

Stage-I (Objective Type)

Paper-II : Geophysics

1. Solid Earth Geophysics:

Introduction to Geophysics and its branches. Solar system: origin,formation and characteristics of planets, Earth: shape and rotation. Gravity and magnetic fields of earth. Geomagnetism, elements of earth's magnetism, Rock
and mineral magnetism, Elastic waves, types and their propagation characteristics, internal structure of earth, variation of physical properties in the interior of earth. Plate tectonics, Earthquakes and their causes, focal depth,
epicenter, Intensity and Magnitude scales, Energy of earthquakes, Seismicity. 

2. Mathematical Methods in Geophysics:

Elements of vector analysis, Vector algebra, Properties of scalars, vectors and tensors, Gradient, Divergence and Curl, Gauss's divergence theorem, Stoke’s theorem. Matrices, Eigen values and Eigen vectors and their
applications in geophysics. Newton's Law of gravitation, Gravity potential and gravity fields due to bodies of different geometric shapes. Basic Forces of Nature and their strength: Gravitational, Electromagnetic, Strong and Weak forces. Conservation Laws in Physics: Energy, Linear and angular momentum. Rigid body motion and moment of inertia. Basics of special theory of relativity and Lorentz transformation.
Fundamental concepts of inverse theory, Definition of inversion and application to Geophysics. Forward and Inverse problems. Probability theory, Random variables, binomial, Poisson and normal distributions. Linear algebra,
Linear ordinary differential equations of first and second order. Partial differential equations (Laplace, wave and heat equations in two and three dimensions). Elements of numerical techniques: root of functions, interpolation,
and extrapolation, integration by trapezoid and Simpson's rule, solution of first order differential equation using Runge-Kutta method, Introduction to finite difference and finite elements methods.

3. Electromagnetism:

Electrostatic and magneto-static fields, Coulomb's law, Electrical permittivity and dielectric constant, Lorentz force and their applications. Ampere's law, Biot and Savart's law, Gauss’s Theorem, Poisson's equation.Laplace's equation: solution of Laplace's equation in Cartesian coordinates, use of Laplace's equation in the solutions of geophysical and electrostatic problems. Displacement current, Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction. Maxwell's
equations. Boundary conditions. Wave equation, plane electromagnetic waves in free space, dielectric and conducting media, electromagnetic vector and scalar potentials.

4. Geophysical Prospecting:

Elements of geophysical methods: Principles, data reduction and applications of gravity, magnetic, electrical, electromagnetic and well logging methods. Fundamentals of seismic methods: Fermat’s Principle, Snell’s Law,
Energy portioning, Reflection and transmission coefficients, Reflection and Refraction from layered media. Signals and systems, sampling theorem, aliasing effect, Fourier series and periodic waveforms, Fourier transform and its
application, Laplace transforms, Convolution, Auto and cross correlations, Power spectrum, Delta function, unit step function. 

5. Remote Sensing and Thermodynamics:

Fundamentals of remote sensing, electromagnetic spectrum, energyfrequency-wavelength relationship, Stefan-Boltzmann Law, Wien’s Law, electromagnetic energy and its interactions in the atmosphere and with terrain
features. Planck’s Radiation Law. Laws of thermodynamics and thermodynamic potential.

6. Nuclear Physics and Radiometry:

Basic nuclear properties: size, shape, charge distribution, spin and parity; Binding energy, semi-empirical mass formula; Fission and fusion. Principles of radioactivity, Alpha, beta and gamma decays, Photoelectric and Compton Effect, Pair Production, radioactivity decay law, radioactivity of rocks and minerals, Radiation Detectors: Ionization chamber, G-M counter, Scintillation counter and Gamma ray spectrometer. Matter Waves and wave particle duality, Electron spin, Spectrum of Hydrogen, helium and alkali atoms. 

Stage-I (Objective Type)

Paper-II : Chemistry

1. Chemical periodicity:

Schrödinger equation for the H-atom. Radial distribution curves for 1s,2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 3d orbitals. Electronic configurations of multi-electron atoms. Periodic table, group trends and periodic trends in physical properties.
Classification of elements on the basis of electronic configuration. Modern IUPAC Periodic table. General characteristics of s, p, d and f block elements.Effective nuclear charges, screening effects, atomic radii, ionic radii, covalent radii. Ionization enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy and electronegativity. Group trends and periodic trends in these properties in respect of s-, p- and d-block elements. General trends of variation of electronic configuration, elemental forms, metallic nature, magnetic properties, catenation and catalytic properties, oxidation states, aqueous and redox chemistry in common oxidation states, properties and reactions of important compounds such as hydrides, halides, oxides, oxy-acids, complex chemistry in respect of s-block and p-block elements.

2. Chemical bonding and structure:

Ionic bonding: Size effects, radius ratio rules and their limitations.Packing of ions in crystals, lattice energy, Born-Landé equation and its applications, Born-Haber cycle and its applications. Solvation energy, polarizing power and polarizability, ionic potential, Fajan's rules. Defects in solids. Covalent bonding: Valence Bond Theory, Molecular Orbital Theory, hybridization. Concept of resonance, resonance energy, resonance structures. Coordinate bonding: Werner theory of coordination compounds, double salts and complex salts. Ambidentate and polydentate ligands, chelate complexes. IUPAC nomenclature of coordination compounds. Coordination numbers,
Geometrical isomerism. Stereoisomerism in square planar and octahedral complexes.

3. Acids and bases:

Chemical and ionic equilibrium. Strengths of acids and bases. Ionization of weak acids and bases in aqueous solutions, application of Ostwald's dilution law, ionization constants, ionic product of water, pH-scale, effect of temperature on pH, buffer solutions and their pH values, buffer action & buffer capacity; different types of buffers and Henderson's equation.

4. Theoretical basis of quantitative inorganic analysis:

Volumetric Analysis: Equivalent weights, different types of solutions, normal and molar solutions. Primary and secondary standard substances. General principles of different types of titrations: i) acid-base, ii) redox, iii)
complexometric, iv) Precipitation. Types of indicators - i) acid-base, ii) redox iii) metal-ion indicators. 

5. Kinetic theory and the gaseous state:

Kinetic theory of gases, average kinetic energy of translation, Boltzmann constant and absolute scale of temperature. Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution of speeds. Calculations of average, root mean square and most probable velocities. Collision diameter; collision number and mean free path; frequency of binary
collisions; wall collision and rate of effusion.

6. Chemical thermodynamics and chemical equilibrium:

First law and its applications to chemical problems. Thermodynamic functions. Total differentials and state functions. Free expansion, JouleThomson coefficient and inversion temperature. Hess’ law. Applications of Second law of thermodynamics. Gibbs function (G) and Helmholtz function (A), Gibbs-Helmholtz equation, criteria for thermodynamic equilibrium and spontaneity of chemical processes.

7. Solutions of non-electrolytes:

Colligative properties of solutions, Raoult's Law, relative lowering of vapour pressure, osmosis and osmotic pressure; elevation of boiling point and depression of freezing point of solvents. Solubility of gases in liquids and solid
solutions. 

8. Electrochemistry:

Cell constant, specific conductance and molar conductance. Kohlrausch's law of independent migration of ions, ion conductance and ionic mobility. Equivalent and molar conductance at infinite dilution. Debye-Hückel theory.
Application of conductance measurements. Conductometric titrations. Determination of transport number by moving boundary method.

9. Basic organic chemistry:

Delocalized chemical bond, resonance, conjugation, hyperconjugation, hybridisation, orbital pictures of bonding sp3, sp2, sp: C-C, C-N and C-O system), bond polarization and bond polarizability. Reactive intermediates:
General methods of formation, relative stability and reactivity of carbocations, carbanions and free radicals.

10. Stereochemistry:

Configuration and chirality (simple treatment of elements of symmetry), optical isomerism of compounds containing two to three stereogenic centres, R,S nomenclature, geometrical isomerism in compounds containing two C=C double bonds (E,Z naming), and simple cyclic systems, Newman projection (ethane and substituted ethane).

11. Types of organic reactions:

Aliphatic substitution reactions: SN1, SN2 mechanisms, stereochemistry,relative reactivity in aliphatic substitutions. Effect of substrate structure, attacking nucleophile, leaving group and reaction medium and competitive 
reactions. Elimination reactions: E1, E2, mechanisms, stereochemistry, relative reactivity in aliphatic eliminations. Effect of substrate structure, attacking base, leaving group, reaction medium and competitive reactions, orientation of the double bond, Saytzeff and Hoffman rules. Addition reactions: Electrophilic, nucleophilic and radical addition reactions at carbon-carbon double bonds. Electrophilic and nucleophilic aromatic substitution: Electrophilic (halogenation, sulphonation, nitration, Friedal-Crafts alkylation and acylation), nucleophilic (simple SNAr, SN1 and aryne reactions).

12. Molecular Rearrangements:

Acid induced rearrangement and Wagner-Meerwein rearrangements. Neighbouring group participation.

Syllabus of Combined Geo-Scientist (Main) Examination :

Stage-II (Descriptive Type) :

Geology : Paper-I

Section A. Physical geology and remote sensing

Evolution of Earth; Earth’s internal structure; earthquakes and volcanoes; principles of geodesy, isostasy; weathering- processes and products; geomorphic landforms formed by action of rivers, wind, glaciers, waves and
groundwater; features of ocean floor; continental shelf, slope and rise; concepts of landscape evolution; major geomorphic features of India- coastal, peninsular and extrapeninsular.Electromagnetic spectrum; electromagnetic bands in remote sensing; spectral signatures of soil, rock, water and vegetation; thermal, near infra-red and microwave remote sensing; digital image processing; LANDSAT, IRS and SPOTcharacteristics and use; aerial photos- types, scale, parallax, relief displacement; elements of image interpretation.

Section B. Structural geology :

Principles of geological mapping; kinematic and dynamic analysis of deformation; stress-strain relationships for elastic, plastic and viscous materials; measurement of strain in deformed rocks; structural analysis of fold, cleavage, boudin, lineation, joint, and fault; stereographic projection of linear and planar structures; superposed deformation; deformation at microscaledynamic and static recrystallisation, controls of strain rate and temperature on 
development of microfabrics; brittle and ductile shear zones; time relationship between crystallisation and deformation, calculation of paleostress.

Section C. Sedimentology :

Classification of sedimentary rocks; sedimentary textures- grain size, roundness, sphericity, shape and fabric; quantitative grain size analysis; sediment transport and deposition- fluid and sediment gravity flows, laminar and turbulent flows, Reynold’s number, Froude number, grain entrainment, Hjulstrom diagram, bed load and suspension load transport; primary sedimentary structures; penecontemporaneous deformation structure; biogenic 
structures; principles and application of paleocurrent analysis; composition and significance of different types of sandstone, limestone, banded iron formation, mudstone, conglomerate; carbonate diagenesis and dolomitisation; sedimentary environments and facies- facies models for fluvial, glacial, deltaic, siliciclastic shallow and deep marine environments; carbonate platforms- types and facies models; sedimentation in major tectonic settings; principles of sequence stratigraphy- concepts and factors controlling base level changes, parasequence, clinoform, systems tract, unconformity and sequence boundary.

Section D. Paleontology :

Fossil record and geological time scale; modes of preservation of fossils and concept of taphonomy; body- and ichno-fossils, species concept, organic evolution, Ediacara Fauna; morphology and time range of Graptolites,  Trilobites, Brachiopods, Lamellibranchs, Gastropods, Cephalopods, Echinoids and Corals; evolutionary trends in Trilobites, Lamellibranchs, Gastropods and Cephalopods; micropaleontology- methods of preparation of microfossils, morphology of  microfossil groups (Foraminifera, Ostracoda), fossil spores, pollen and dinoflagellates; Gondwana plant fossils and their significance; vertebrate life through ages, evolution in Proboscidea, Equidae and Hominidae; applications of paleontological data in stratigraphy, paleoecology and paleoclimatology; mass extinctions.

Section E. Stratigraphy :

Principles of stratigraphy- code of stratigraphic nomenclature of India; lithostratigraphy, biostratigraphy, chronostratigraphy and magnetostratigraphy; principles of stratigraphic correlation; characteristics of Archean  granitegreenstone belts; Indian stratigraphy- geological evolution of Archean nucleii (Dharwar, Bastar, Singhbhum, Aravalli and Bundelkhand); Proterozoic mobile belts- Eastern Ghats Mobile Belt, Southern Granulite Terrain, Central Indian Tectonic Zone, Aravalli-Delhi Belt, North Singhbhum Mobile Belt; Proterozoic sedimentary basins (Cuddapah and Vindhyan); Phanerozoic stratigraphyPaleozoic (Spiti, Kashmir and Kumaon), Mesozoic (Spiti, Kutch, Narmada Valley and Trichinopoly), Gondwana Supergroup, Cenozoic (Assam, Bengal basins, Garhwal-Shimla Himalayas); Siwaliks; boundary problems in Indian
stratigraphy.

Stage-II (Descriptive Type)

Geology : Paper-II

Section A. Mineralogy :

Symmetry, motif, Miller indices; concept of unit cell and Bravais lattices; 32 crystal classes; types of bonding, Pauling’s rules and coordination polyhedra; crystal imperfections- defects, twinning and zoning; polymorphism, 
pseudomorphism, isomorphism and solid solution; physical properties of minerals; polarising microscope and accessory plate; optical properties of minerals- double refraction, polarisation, pleochroism, sign of elongation,
interference figure and optic sign; structure, composition, physical and optical properties of major rock-forming minerals- olivine, garnet, aluminosilicates, pyroxene, amphibole, mica, feldspar, clay, silica and spinel group.

Section B. Geochemistry and isotope geology

Chemical composition and characteristics of atmosphere, lithosphere,hydrosphere; geochemical cycles; meteorites- types and composition; Goldschmidt’s classification of elements; fractionation of elements in minerals/rocks; Nernst’s partition coefficient (compatible and incompatible elements), Nernst-Berthelot partition coefficient and bulk partition coefficient; Fick’s laws of diffusion and activity composition relation (Roult’s and Henry’s law); application of trace elements in petrogenesis; principles of equilibrium and Rayleigh fractionation; REE patterns, Eh and pH diagrams and mineral stability. Half-life and decay equation; dating of minerals and rocks with potassiumargon, rubidium-strontium, uranium-lead and samarium-neodymium isotopes; petrogenetic implications of samarium-neodymium and rubidium-strontium systems; stable isotope geochemistry of carbon, oxygen and sulphur and their applications in geology; monazite chemical dating. 

Section C. Igneous petrology :

Viscosity, temperature and pressure relationships in magmas; IUGS classification of plutonic and volcanic rocks; nucleation and growth of minerals in magmatic rocks, development of igneous textures; magmatic evolution 
(differentiation, assimilation, mixing and mingling); types of mantle melting (batch, fractional and dynamic); binary (albite-anorthite, forsterite-silica and diopside-anorthite) and ternary (diopside-forsterite-silica, diopside-forsteriteanorthite and nepheline-kalsilite-silica) phase diagrams and relevance to magmatic crystallization; petrogenesis of granites, basalts, ophiolite suite, komatiites, syenites, boninites, anorthosites and layered complexes, and alkaline rocks (carbonatite, kimberlite, lamproite, lamprophyre); mantle metasomatism, hotspot magmatism and large igneous provinces of India.

Section D. Metamorphic petrology :

Limits and physico-chemical controls (pressure, temperature, fluids and bulk rock composition) of metamorphism; concept of zones, facies, isograds and facies series, geothermal gradients and tectonics of orogenic belts;  structures, micro-structures and textures of regional and contact metamorphic rocks; representation of metamorphic assemblages (ACF, AKF and AFM diagrams); equilibrium concept in thermodynamics; laws of thermodynamics, enthalpy, entropy, Gibb’s free energy, chemical potential, fugacity and activity; tracing the chemical reactions in P-T space, phase rule and mineralogical phase rule in multi-component system; Claussius-Clapeyron equation and slopes of metamorphic reactions; heat flow, diffusion and mass transfer; Fourier’s law of heat conduction; geothermobarometry; mass and energy change during fluidrock interactions; charnockite problem, formation of skarns, progressive and retrogressive metamorphism of pelitic, calcareous and basic rocks; P-T-t path and tectonic setting.

Section E. Geodynamics :

Phase transitions and seismic discontinuities in the Earth; seismic waves and relation between Vp, Vs and density; seismic and petrological Moho; rheology of rocks and fluids (Newtonian and non-Newtonian liquids); rock magnetism and its origin; polarity reversals, polar wandering and supercontinent cycles; continental drift, sea floor spreading; gravity and magnetic anomalies of ocean floors and their significance; mantle plumes and their origin; plate tectonicstypes of plate boundaries and their inter-relationship; heat flow and heat production of the crust.

Stage-II (Descriptive Type)

Geology : Paper-III

Section A. Economic geology :

Ore minerals and industrial minerals; physical and optical properties of ore minerals; ore textures and paragenesis; characteristics of mineral depositsspatial and temporal distribution, rock-ore association; syngenetic and
epigenetic deposits, forms of ore bodies, stratiform and strata-bound deposits; ore forming processes- source and migration of ore constituents and ore fluid, mechanism of ore deposition; magmatic and pegmatitic deposits (chromite, Timagnetite, diamond, Cu-Ni sulphide, PGE, REE, muscovite, rare metals); hydrothermal deposits (porphyry Cu-Mo, greisen Sn-W, skarn, VMS and SEDEX type sulphide deposits, orogenic gold); sedimentary deposits (Fe, Mn, phosphorite, placer); supergene deposits (Cu, Al, Ni and Fe); metamorphic and metamorphosed deposits (Mn, graphite); fluid inclusions in ore mineral assemblage- physical and chemical properties, microthermometry; stable isotope (S, C, O, H) in ore genesis- geothermometry, source of ore constituents; global tectonics and mineralisation. 

Section B. Indian mineral deposits and mineral economics :

Distribution of mineral deposits in Indian shield; geological characteristics of important industrial mineral and ore deposits in India- chromite, diamond, muscovite, Cu-Pb-Zn, Sn-W, Au, Fe-Mn, bauxite; minerals used in refractory,
fertilizer, ceramic, cement, glass, paint industries; minerals used as abrasive, filler; building stones. Strategic, critical and essential minerals; India’s status in mineral production; co-products and by-products; consumption, substitution and conservation of minerals; National Mineral Policy; Mineral Concession Rules; marine mineral resources and laws of the sea.

Section C. Mineral exploration :

Stages of exploration; scope, objectives and methods of prospecting, regional exploration and detailed exploration; geological, geochemical and geobotanical methods; litho-, bio-, soil geochemical surveys, mobility and  dispersion of elements, geochemical anomalies; ore controls and guides; pitting, trenching, drilling; sampling, assaying, ore reserve estimation; categorization of ore reserves; geophysical methods- ground and airborne surveys; gravity, magnetic, electrical and seismic methods of mineral exploration.

Section D. Fuel geology and Engineering geology :

Coal and its properties; proximate and ultimate analysis; different varieties and ranks of coal; concept of coal maturity, peat, lignite, bituminous and anthracite coal; origin of coal, coalification process; lithotypes, microlithotypes and maceral groups of coal; mineral and organic matter in coal; lignite and coal deposits of India; origin, migration and entrapment of natural hydrocarbons; characteristics of source and reservoir rocks; structural, stratigraphic and mixed traps; geological, geochemical and geophysical methods of hydrocarbon exploration; petroliferous basins of India; geological characteristics and genesis of major types of U deposits and their distribution in India. 
Engineering properties of rocks; geological investigations in construction of dams, reservoirs, tunnels, bridges, highways and coastal protection structures; geologic considerations of construction materials.

Section E. Environmental geology and Natural hazards :

Stefan-Boltzmann equation and planetary temperature; cause and effects of global climate change; Earth’s radiation budget; greenhouse gases and effect; examples of positive and negative feedback mechanisms;  biogeochemical cycle of carbon; geological investigations of nuclear waste disposal sites; marginal marine environments- estuaries, mangroves and lagoons; ozone hole depletion, ocean acidification, coral bleaching,  Milankovitch cycle, sea level rise, eutrophication and acid rain; environmental impacts of urbanization, mining and hydropower projects; water pollution, water logging and soil erosion; Himalayan glaciers; causes and consequences of earthquakes, volcanoes, tsunami, floods, landslides, coastal erosion, droughts and desertification; application of remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS) in environmental management.

Stage-II (Descriptive Type)

Hydrogeology

Section A. Occurrence and distribution of groundwater :

Origin of water on Earth; global water cycle and budget; residence time concept, geologic formations as aquifers; confined and unconfined aquifers; groundwater table mapping and piezometric nests; porosity, void ratio, effective porosity and representative porosity range; primary and secondary porosities; groundwater zonation; specific retention, specific yield; groundwater basins; springs.

Section B. Groundwater movement and well hydraulics :

Groundwater flow concepts; Darcy's Law in isotropic and anisotropic media and validity; water flow rates, direction and water volume in aquifers; permeability and hydraulic conductivity and ranges in representative rocks;  Bernoulli equation; determination of hydraulic conductivity in field and laboratory; concept of groundwater flow through dispersion and diffusion; transmissivity and aquifer thickness.

Section C. Water wells and groundwater levels :

Unidirectional and radial flow to a well (steady and unsteady); well flow near aquifer boundaries; methods for constructing shallow wells, drilling wells, well completion; testing wells, pumping test, slug tests for confined and unconfined aquifers; fluctuations in groundwater levels; stream flow and groundwater flows; groundwater level fluctuations; land subsidence; impact of global climate change on groundwater.

Section D. Groundwater exploration :

Surface investigation of groundwater- geologic, remote sensing, electrical resistivity, seismic, gravity and magnetic methods; sub-surface investigation of groundwater- test drilling, resistivity logging, spontaneous potential logging, radiation logging.

Section E. Groundwater quality and management :

Groundwater composition, units of expression, mass-balance calculations; rockwater interaction (chemical equilibrium, free energy, redox reactions and cation/anion exchanges), graphic representation of chemical data;  groundwater hardness, microorganisms in groundwater; water quality standards; sea-water intrusion; groundwater issues due to urbanization; solid and liquid waste disposal and plume migration models; application of isotopes (H, C, O) in groundwater; concepts of artificial recharge methods; managing groundwater resources; groundwater basin investigations and management practices.

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