GS Mains Model Question & Answer: What do you mean by Organic Farming ? Discuss the key characteristics and future of Organic farming in India


GS Mains Model Question & Answer: What do you mean by Organic Farming ? Discuss the key characteristics and future of Organic farming in India


Q. What do you mean by Organic Farming ? Discuss the key characteristics and future of Organic farming in India. (12.5 Marks)

(General Studies Mains Paper III- Economy: Major crops cropping patterns)

Model Answer :

Organic Farming

Organic farming system in India is a method of farming system which primarily aimed at cultivating the land and raising crops in such a way, as to keep the soil alive and in good health by use of organic wastes (crop, animal and farm wastes, aquatic wastes) and other biological materials along with beneficial microbes (biofertilizers) to release nutrients to crops for increased sustainable production in an eco friendly pollution free environment.

As per the definition of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) study team on organic farming “organic farming is a system which avoids or largely excludes the use of synthetic inputs (such as fertilizers, pesticides, hormones, feed additives etc) and to the maximum extent feasible rely upon crop rotations, crop residues, animal manures, off-farm organic waste, mineral grade rock additives and biological system of nutrient mobilization and plant protection”.

FAO suggested that “Organic agriculture is a unique production management system which promotes and enhances agro-ecosystem health, including biodiversity, biological cycles and soil biological activity, and this is accomplished by using on-farm agronomic, biological and mechanical methods in exclusion of all synthetic off-farm inputs”.

The key characteristics of organic farming

  • Protecting the long term fertility of soils by maintaining organic matter levels, encouraging soil biological activity, and careful mechanical intervention
  • Providing crop nutrients indirectly using relatively insoluble nutrient sources which are made available to the plant by the action of soil micro-organisms
  • Nitrogen self-sufficiency through the use of legumes and biological nitrogen fixation, as well as effective recycling of organic materials including crop residues and livestock manures
  • Weed, disease and pest control relying primarily on crop rotations, natural predators, diversity, organic manuring, resistant varieties and limited (preferably minimal) thermal, biological and chemical intervention
  • The extensive management of livestock, paying full regard to their evolutionary adaptations, behavioural needs and animal welfare issues with respect to nutrition, housing, health, breeding and rearing
  • Careful attention to the impact of the farming system on the wider environment and the conservation of wildlife and natural habitats

Future of organic farming in India

With the increase in population our compulsion would be not only to stabilize agricultural production but to increase it further in sustainable manner. The scientists have realized that the ‘Green Revolution’ with high input use has reached a plateau and is now sustained with diminishing return of falling dividends. Thus, a natural balance needs to be maintained at all cost for existence of life and property. The obvious choice for that would be more relevant in the present era, when these agrochemicals which are produced from fossil fuel and are not renewable and are diminishing in availability. It may also cost heavily on our foreign exchange in future.

In India, states such as Sikkim and Kerala have planned to shift to fully organic cultivation by 2015 and 2016 respectively. Seasonal food is at its healthiest and so, nothing out of season is grown at this organic farm. While most farmers will scatter the seeds across the field, at this farm the seeds are planted in squares of 1 meter each to enable rain water harvesting. The fertilizers used to enrich the soil are made with locally sourced, indigenous ingredients. Natural pesticides are sprayed according to the movement of the moon, during Pooranmasi and Amawasya, when pest activity is known to peak.

References

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