GS Mains Model Question & Answer: What is Security Council Resolution 2254 for endorsing Peace Process in Syria and challenges in its road ahead?


GS Mains Model Question & Answer: What is Security Council Resolution 2254 for endorsing Peace Process in Syria and challenges in its road ahead ?


Q. What is Security Council Resolution 2254 for endorsing Peace Process in Syria and challenges in its road ahead ?. (12.5 Marks)

(General Studies Mains Paper II – International Relations : Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India's interests)

Model Answer :

First time since the nearly five-year-old Syrian civil war began, world powers agreed at the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) to embrace a plan for a ceasefire and a peace process that holds the distant prospect of ending the conflict.

A resolution adopted unanimously by the Security Council reflected a months-long effort by American and Russian officials, who have long been at odds over the future of Syria, to find common national interests to stop the killing, even if they cannot yet agree on Syria’s ultimate future.

But there remain sharp disagreements to be reconciled between the American and Russian positions, and huge uncertainty about what the plan will mean on the ground. A dizzying array of armed forces have left Syria in ruins, killed 250,000 and driven four million refugees out of the country, threatening to destabilise the nations where they are seeking new homes.

UN Security Council Resolution on Syria (No. 2254)

  • Calls for ceasefire and formal talks on a political transition to start in early January
  • Groups seen as "terrorist", including Islamic State and al-Nusra Front, are excluded
  • "Offensive and defensive actions" against such groups - a reference to air strikes by US-led coalition and Russia - to continue
  • UN chief Ban Ki-moon to report by 18 January on how to monitor ceasefire
  • "Credible, inclusive and non-sectarian governance" to be established within six months
  • "Free and fair elections" under UN supervision to be held within 18 months
  • Political transition should be Syrian-led

The resolution makes no mention of whether Syria’s President, Bashar Al-Assad, would be able to run in new elections, which it says must be held within 18 months of the beginning of political talks.

The resolution, adopted with a 15-0 vote, gives the Security Council’s imprimatur to a possible political solution for the first time. It signals a narrowing of the diplomatic gap between Washington and Moscow, it remains uncertain whether they will be able to cool the tempers of regional rivals — chiefly, Saudi Arabia and Iran.

The resolution is striking for its ambition. It places the political process to decide Mr. Assad’s future under UN auspices, making it far harder for Mr. Assad to control the vote, and specifically requires that all Syrians, “including members of the diaspora”, be allowed to participate in the vote.

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