UPSC IAS Mains History Optional Solved Exam Paper - 2010

UPSC IAS Mains History Optional Solved Exam Paper - 2010

:: Paper - I ::

Section A

1. Mark the following places on the map supplied to you and write short descriptive notes on them.

(i) Korkai
(ii) Eran
(iii) Birbhanpur
(iv) Rakhigarhi
(v) Sannati
(vi) Isipattan
(vii) Dhanyakataka
(viii) Junnar
(ix) Edakkal
(x) Paithan
(xi) Pandu Rajar Dhibi
(xii) Karle
(xiii) Vatapi
(iv) Porkalam
(xv) Kalanjar
(xv) kalajar
(xvi) Malian
(xviii) chandudaro
(xix) Rajim
(xx) Tripuri


(i) Korkai: Korkai is a small village in the Srivaikuntam taluk of Tuticorin district in Tamil Nadu, India. It is situated about 3 km north of the Thamirabarani River and about 6 kin from the shore of Bay of Bengal. Korkai was the commercial capital and important port of the Pandyan Kingdom of the third Sangam age. At that time, it was located on the banks of the Tamraparani River and at the sea coast, forming a natural harbour. Due to excessive sedimentation, the sea has recer+ed about 6 km in the past 200(1 years, leaving Korkai well inland today. The famous um burial site, Adichanallur, is located about 15 km. from Korkai.

(ii) Eran: Eran is an ancient Indian historical city in Sagar district in Madhya Pradesh state. It can be called to be the oldest historical town of Sagar district in Madhya Pradesh. In earlier coins and inscriptions its name appears as Airiki? a) From an early inscrip­tion at Sanchi we know that the residents of Eran had made some gifts to the famous Stupa situ­ated at Sanchi. This city was the capital of Airikina Pradesha or Airkina Vishaya. an ad­ministrative division of the Gupta empire.

(iii) Birbhanpur: Birbhanpur a nticrolithic site in Birbhanpur village, on the right bank of the Damodar near Durgapur district Burdwan, West Bengal, was discovered by AK Mukherjee, a local zamindar in early 1950s. Initially the site was explored and excavated on a small scale in 1954 by BB Lal, the then superintendent of the Eastern Circle of the Ar­chaeological Survey of India (henceforth re­ferred to as ASI). From this excavation the geo­logical context of the microliths were ascertained.

(iv) Rakhigarhi: Rakhigarhi is a village in block &tehil Narnaund in Hisar District in the northwest Indian state of Haryana. around 150 kilometers from Delhi. Actually, Rakhigarhi is a common name for two sepa­rate villages Rakhi Shahpur and Rakhi Khas. It neibouring villaes are Gamra,Habatpur, Mirchpur etc.It lies on the Chautang River. In 1963 archeologists discovered the village was the site of an extensive city, part of the Indus Valley Civilization. Since 1997 the Archaeological Survey of India has undertaken a detailed excavation of the site, revealing the size of the lost city (at least 2.2 km) and recovering numerous artifacts. some over 5,000 years old. Evidence of paved roads, drainage system, large rainwater collection, storage system, terracotta brick, slants production. and skilled metal working (in both bronze and precious metals) has been uncovered. Jewellery, in­cluding bangles made from terracotta, conch shells, gold, and semi-precious stones. has also been found.

(v) Sannathi: Sannathi is a small village located in Gulbarga District of Karnataka. It is famous for the Chandralamba temple built in the 11th century. This temple is visited by a large numbers of pilgrims during the months of March and April.This village is of great archaeological importance, being the largest Buddhist site in Karnataka. Sannathi is about 60 km from Gulbarga.

(vi) Issipattan: The Mulagandha Kuty Vihara (Mulagandha Kuti Vihar) is the prime place of worship for the Buddhist congregation of the world. It was constructed by Bodhi-Sattva Anagarika Dharmapala, a Sri Lankan who is the founder of the Mahn Bodhi Society of India in the Isipatana Deer Park of Sarnath, at the very site where Sakyamuni Buddha preached his first sermon. The Mulagandha Kuty Vihara is said to be where Buddha spent a rainy season while in Sarnath.The location where Buddha Shakyamuni taught the Kalachakra tantra lies near the ancient town of Amaravati, situated few kilometers away from Guntur on the south of-the river Krishna. From the 3rd BCE to the 12th CE, the city was a flourishing Buddhist center.

(vii) Dhanyakataka: According to archaeolo-gists, Amaravati stupa was built in the 3rd to 2nd centu­ries BCE Subsequent additions were made in the 1st­4th centuries CE under both Satavahana and lkshvaku kings. The site lies close to the ancient Satavahana capital, Dhanyakataka. The stupa was the largest in the eastern Deccan (36.5 in across and encircled by a 4.2 in path). It was a brick structure covered with marble casing slabs. Most of the bro­ken carved capping pieces, railings and posts are removed and displayed in the Government museum in Chennai and the site museum at Amaravati. See also this archaeological page.The richly decorated stupa attracted pilgrims until the 12th century and was ruined towards the end of the 18th century by a local zamindar Sri Vasi Reddy Venkatadri Naidu in the anxi­ety to obtain building materials

(viii) Junnar: Junnar is a city with thousands of years of history in the Pune district of the Indian state of Maharashtra. It is a taluka headquarter. Situated at the base of the Sahyadri mountains, it is around 100 km east of Mumbai and 94 km north of Pune. Also located near this city are Shivneri Fort, birthplace of Chhatrapati Shivaji Raje, the famous Maratha king, Lenyadri (girijatmak) and Ozar (vighnaher) both are from Ashtavinayakas. The land surrounding Junnar is very fertile and the main crops harvested are rice, wheat, and sugarcane. The town also holds a weekly market for fruit and vegetables on Sundays. Junnar is also famous for its Ganesh decorations during the Ganesh festival, being sometimes compared with the decora­tions in Pune and Mumbai during the festival. Junnar taluka in Maharashtra has the largest density of leop­ard population within a 500 knti area. It also holds the record for the largest number of leopards trapped within that range ever. Junnar is also surrounded by much greenery and dams. such as Vadaj and Manikdoh, common picnicking locations. Also present are the ancient Naueghat caves

(ix) Edakkal: The name “Edakkal” literally means “a stone in between”, and this describes how the cave is formed by a heavy boulder straddling a fissure in the rock. Inside the cave is on two levels,, the lower chamber measures about 18 feet long by 12 feet wide and 10 feet high and can be entered through an open­ing of 5 x 4 feet. A passage opposite the entrance leads upward to a aperture in the roof through which one climbs up to the next storey whose interior is about 96 feet long, 22 feet wide, and 18 feet high. Light enters the cave through a big gap at the right-hand corner of the roof where the boulder does not touch the facing wall.

(x) Paithan: Paithan formerly Pratishthana, is a city and a municipal council in Aurangabad district in the Indian state of Maharashtra. The city was the of the S5tavihana empire of ancient India that ruled from 2nd century BC to 2nd century AD. It is one of the few inland towns mentioned in the famous Ist century AD Greek book, Periplus Maris Erytharaei. Pailhan is lo­cated 56 kin south of present-day Aurangabad on the Godavari River in Maharashtra. Paithan was home of the great Maharashtrian saint , whose “samadhi” can he found there. The little town is famous for its Shrine of ‘Sant Eknath’ where people flock every year during the time of ‘Paithan Yatra’ also known as NathShashti.

(xi) Pandu rajar dhibi: The site was first exca­vated by B.B. Lal in 1954-57. Subsequent excavations were carried out in several phases in 1962-1965 and in 1985 by the West Bengal Department of Archacology. While Pandu Rajar Dhibi was the first Chalcolithic or Copper Age site to be discovered, a number of other sites have been discovered in an area spread over the districts of Birbhum, Bardhaman, Bankura and Midnapore, and interspersed by rivers Brahmani, Mayurakshi, Kopai. Ajay. Kunur. Damodar. Dwarakcsvar, Shilabati, and Rupnarayan.

(xii) Karle: The sculpture of Karle chaitya closely resembles the Buddhist chaitya halls. It is popular as the largest rock cut chaitya and due to the fact that the Ekvira Devi Mandir is located in front of it. The sculp­ture of Karle chaitya was made during 100-125 A:D. It is situated in the Pane, Maharashtra. The sculpture of Karle chaitya primarily comprises figurines and animal forms. The chaitya hall at Karle is apsidal while the central space is in the form of a nave like structure. This, in turn, is surrounded by an ambulatory. Besides the intricate sculptures there are inscriptions at Karle chaitya which are of great importance. These inscrip­tions belong to the Satavahanas and Western Kshaharatas. These have been carved out on the rocks in the verandah, pillars of the hall and the court

(xiii) Badami: Badami was the capital of the Early Chalukyas, who ruled much of Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh between the 6th and 8th centuries, It was founded in 540 AD by Pulakesi 1(535-566 AD), an early ruler of the Chalukyas. His sons Kirthivarman (567­598 AD) and his brother Mangalesha (598-610 AD) constructed the cave temples. The greatest among them was Pulakesi II (610 x,42 AD) who defeated many kings but failed to capture Pallava’s capital Kanchipuram. The rock-cut Badami Cave Temples were sculpted mostly between the 6th and 8th centuries. The four cave temples represent the secular nature of the rulers then, with tolerance and a religious follow­ing that inclines towards Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainistn. cave I is devoted to Shiva. and Caves 2 and 3 are dedicated to Vishnu,whereas cave 4 displays re­liefs of Jain Tirthankaras. Deep caverns with carved images of the various incarnations of Hindu gods are strewn across the area, under boulders and in the red sandstone. From an architectural and archaeological perspective, they provide critical evidence of the early styles and stages of the southern Indian architecture

(xiv) Porkalam: Three dolmans already excavated by the Department. Contents including prehistoric pot­teries and iron implements were taken to Thrissur Archaeological Museum. The three dolmans with 5 cents of land were declared as protected mouments by the department in 1935.Porkalam Dolmans Loca­tion: Village - Talappally, Taluk - Talappally. District - Thrissur, Location - Behind the Vedakkadu temple in Kunnamkulam - Kattukambal route.

(xv) Kalinjar: Kalinjar is a fortress-city in the Bundelkhand region of central India. Kalinjar is lo­cated in Banda District of Uttar Pradesh state, hear the temple-city and World Heritage Site of Khajuraho. The fortress is strategically located on an isolated rocky hill at the end the Vindhya Range, at an elevation of 1203 feet overlooking the plains of Bundelkhand. It served several of Bundelkhand’s ruling dynasties. in­cluding the Chandela dynasty of Rajputs in the 10th century, and the Solankis of Rewa. The fortress con­tains several temples, dating as far back as the Gupta dynasty of the 3rd-5th centuries.

(xvi) Multan: Multan, which is derived from its name in antiquity, Moolasthan is a city in the Punjab Province of Pakistan and capital of Multan District. It is located in the southern part of the province. Multan District has a population of over 4.5 million- It is situated on the east bank of the Chenab River, more or less in the geographic centre of the country and about 562 km (349 mi) from Islamabad,356 km (221 mi) from Lahore. & 966 km (600 mi) front Karachi. Multan is known as the City of Sufis or City of Saints due to the large number of shrines and Sufi saints from the city. The city is full of bazaars, mosques, shrines and or­nate tombs. It is located in a bend created by five rivers of the Punjab province. The Sutlej River sepa­rates it from Bahawalpur and the Chenab River from Muzal’far Garh. The city has grown to become an in­fluential political and economical center for the coun­try, with a dry port and excellent transport links. Multan is famous for its crops: wheat, cotton and sugar cane as well as mangoes, citrus, guavas and pomegranates

(xvii) Bairat: The ancient name of the town was Viratnagar, and its history goes back to the time of the Mahabharata. Viratnagar was the capital of the ancient Indian kingdom (Mahajanapada) of Machcha or Matsya. The kingdom came under the control of the neighboring Chedi Kingdom in the 5th century, and was later part of the Mauryan Empire. The rains of the Bijak-ki-pahadi, a Buddhist Chaitya (chapel) from the 3rd century BCE, is the oldest free standing Buddhist structure in India. The town also has the rains of a Buddhist monastery, a wood and timber shrine, and rock-cut edict from Emperor Ashoka that date from the Mauryan period. In 634 Xuanzang had visited the Bairat and Mathura towns. He went east to Jalandhar in eastern Punjab, before climbing up to visit predominantly Theravada monasteries in the Kulu val­ley and turning southward again to. Bairat and then Mathura, on the Yamuna river.

(xviii) Chanhudaro: Chanhudaro (also Chanhu Date) is an archaeological site belonging to the post­urban Jhukar phase of Indus valley civilization. The site is located 130 kilometers (81 miles) south of Mohenjodaro, in Sindh, Pakistan. The settlement was inhabited between 4000-1700 BCE, and is considered to have been a centre for manufacturing carnelian beads. This site is a group of three low mounds that excavations has shown were parts of a single settle­ment, approximately 5 hectares in size.Chanhudaro was first excavated by Nam Gopal Majumdar in March, 1930 and again during winter field session of 1935-36 by the American School of Indic and Iranian Studies and the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston team led by Ernest John Henry Mackay. After the independence of Pakistan, Mohammed Rafique Mughal also did ex­ploratory work in the area.

(xix) Rajim: Rajim, situated on the banks of Mahanadi in Chattisgarh, is famous for an ancient temple dedicated to Lord Vishnu. N,’re Vishnu is en­shrined as Rajivatochan. The temple pis a fine example of Mahakoshal architecture. A Nala inscription dating back to AD 700 bears references to the Sarabhapura sovereigns.Rajim is 45 kin south-east of Raipur, the state capital. Regular buses are available from Raipur.

(xx) Tripuri: Tripuri is an ancient town situated 13 km to the west of Jabalpur on the Bheraghat road. Old name of this town was Tewar. Archeological re­mains spread extensively over a vast area in the town. Tripuri was the site of the 1939 session of All India Congress. where Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose was elected president. A gate (Kamania) was erected in the city to commemorate the event.

2. (a). To what extent archeological materials are use­ful in understanding the progress of neolitic man in India? (for Answer Join Online Coaching for IAS Mains Exam)

Q2 (b). Examine the significance of the deities depicted on the coins of Kushana.

3. (a) Examine the view that sacrifice was a ritual and a form of social exchange in Vedic India.


There is a view expressed in Indian his­tory that sacrifice was used as a firm of social exchange in Vedic India. A prominent historian Romilla Thapar support their view.

The vedic -society comprised of Brahman, Kshatriya and Vish. The Brahmin and Kshatriya were the non producing class and Vish were the producers.

Rigveda is the primary source regarding sacri­fices. Soma sacrifice, sacrifices to agni etc. were differ­ent sacrifice mentioned in Rigvcda. The different dei­ties to whom the sacrifices are offered include, Indra, Vamna, Mitra etc.

The central ritual was yajna. sacrifice. The do­mestic ritual with small obtain were performed unitarily. Gradually the more spectacular rituals attracted pa­tronage as they had a public function and only upper castes could participate.

The ritual of sacrifice was believed to sustain the well being of clan and the system. Domestic prosper­ity, requiring an increase in hard and good crops had to be prayed for, as well as success in kirmehes and raids. Glods were believed to grant boons and even to participate unseen in the rituals. Small ablations were restricted to the domestic sacrifice but from time to time larger sacrifices were organised for which the dam brought substantial prestation.

The public sacrifice was a solemn occasion. The wealth collected by raja through voluntary tribute and prestation from vish was consumed in the ritual and is distribution of gifts at the end to other rajas and to priests. The giving of gifts were believed to ensure a re­turn of gifts ever in greater amount. Sacrificial rites tended to increase the power of the priest without whom the sacrifice could not take place and of the raja who possessed the wealth it required. Collecting the wealth, meant pressuring the Vish to part with their produce. The sacrifice assisted the Kshatriya to as­sert great power over Vish and Shudra.

The raja’s gift to the priests enriched and em­powered the Brahmans. The sacrifice prevented the raja from accumulating wealth to the point where his status would be based on economic power rather than ritual. Yet the former was necessary to create the type of kingship associated with the notion of state in which king controlled the accumulation and distribution of wealth, among other things.

Q3 (b). Assess the role of guilds and trade organization in the development of early Indian economy.


Literary and epigraphic evidence show that Stems or guilds formed an important feature of eco­nomic life of people in ancient India. The Shreni was more in nature of group of professionals. Merchants or artisans who worked in an association.

Mahavastu and Milendpanho mention 75 differ­ent occupation many of which were transformed into guilds. The Jatakas mention the number of guilds as 18. The growing importance of guilds is a attested by the fact that law-givers like Gautama and Manu recognised the rights of traders, cultivators, horse­man, artisan etc. to frame rules for their respective as­sociations. These rules were to be taken into consid­eration by king in giving legal decision. Manu refers to Sreni-dharma as having the force of law.

The guilds beginning from 6’h B.C., gradually gained importance in economy. They became crucial factor in organisation of production. The vast major­ity of artisans joined guild, since it was difficult for them to compete as individual against the guilds. With increasing demand for particular commodities and the consequent necessity to raise their output some guilds began to employ hired labour and slaves.

Leading guilds were those of potters, metal work­ers, carpenter etc. Their size can be gauged from the fact that one wealthy potter named Sadalaputta had owned five hundred potters shop. In addition he organised his own destribution and owned large num­ber of boats which took pottery from workshops to various parts on Gauges. With increase in trade and commerce the major guilds grew even larger.

Guild fixed rules of work and quality of finished product and its price to safeguard both the artisan and customer. The guilds also controlled the prices of manu­factured articles and these either depended on quality of work or were calculated according to fixed scale. Many guilds operated at local as well as on larger country level. Certain guilds were also involved in for­eign trade. ‘Ayyavdle’ a guild from South India oper-. ated at longer long distance trade. ‘Manigramam’, an­other guild composed of multiple nationalities under took foreign trade. The ‘Royal connection’ of the guild was also a significant factor which influenced the role played by guild in economy. Royalty had a financial interest in guild. Investment in commercial enterprise brought larger returns. Royalty thus had interest in ensuring well being of guild. Another fact which emerges from inscription is that guild could act as banker, financer and trustee as well. Generally these functions were carried out by different category of merchants known as Sreshthin in North India and Chettyars in South India.

4. What light do early inscription and literature throw on the status of women in politico-socio­ economic sphere? (for Answer Join Online Coaching for IAS Mains Exam)

Section B

5. Write short notes in not more than 200 words each on any three of the following.
(a) Provide a comparative analysis of the develop­ment of Arabic and Persian historiography.


The study of Arabic and Persian historiog­ raphy brings to light a unique feature about these. The early historiographies were written in pure Arabic. Later Arabic and Persian were used interchangeably with tran­sition to Persian historiographies in Mughal Period. Alberuni was the first prominent muslim indologist. His Tarikh ul Hind, an authentic source of information about the socio-religious condition of In­dia, was written in Arabic. Taj-ul-Maosir of Hasan Nizauii provides first his­torical narrative which untage the history of Sultanat. Its medium of expression is a unique mixture of Arabic and Persian. Later many hooks were written in Persian and Arabic. This includes. Tabaqut-i-Nasiri of Minhajus Siraj; Tarikh-i-Firoze Shahi and Fatwa-i-Jahandari of Ziauddin Barani, Tarkh-i-Firoze Shahi of Shamsi Siraj Alit. the famous historian of Tughlaq period etc. Indian histography which has been recognised as an Islamic heritage reached the zeneth of growth and development during the Mughal period. The Mughal emperors were great patrons of education and learning.

There were cities which had predominantly com­mercial and manufacturing character. For example Patna and Ahmedabad. There were pilgrim centres where some trade and craft activities also flourished. Cities such as Bananas. Mathura, Kanchi fall in this category. There were centres which flourished because of distinctive manufacturing technique or skill or local commodity. Bayana because of Indigo, Patan in Gujrat for dyeing, Khairabad in Awadh for textiles. Other aspect to study the cities is the type of town planning. Forts, mansions, mosques, gardens, bazar and other public building were built in city. Bernier gives a description of planning of Shahjahanabad.

Q5 (b) Discuss social dynamics in Vijayanagar Em­pire. (for Answer Join Online Coaching for IAS Mains Exam)

Q5 (c). Discuss different types of Karkhanas in Mughal India. How was the production organised in karkhanas? (for Answer Join Online Coaching for IAS Mains Exam)

Q5 (d). Critically evaluate various approaches to study medieval Indian towns.  (for Answer Join Online Coaching for IAS Mains Exam)

6. (a). Examine the increasing importance of maritime trade of India during 13th to 15th century.


In historical studies the time frame from 13th , to 15th century corresponds to the rule of Sultanat of Delhi. The establishment of Sultanat of Delhi was a departure from commercial anemia which afflicted the early medieval period.

The establishment of Sultanat brought different ruling class that had needs of leisure and comforts of different type. The sultanat brought about centralisation in India from political and economic per­spective which paved way for political and economic stability. Sultanat ruling class remained town centred and spent on buying crafts and luxury items. Sultan also introduced new coins, for example Iltutmish in­troduced silver Tanka and copper Jital, Moh. Bin Tughlaq introduced the silver Adali. This led to the emergence of cash economy and monetisation.

Such condition led to development of trade both internal and foreign. The Khalji annexation of Gujrat enlarged trade relation between Delhi and Gulf. Gujrat was connected with Persian Gulf as well as Red Sea. Merchandise of Gujrat were also carried toward east i.e. Malacca. The main export from Gujrat to Malacca was coloured cloths manufactured in Cambay. In ex­change Gujrati merchant came back with spices. This pattern of spices for coloured clothes continued even after the Portugese advent in Asia.

The ports of Bengal had trade relation with China. Malacca and far East. Textiles, sugar and silk fabrics were most important commodities exported from Bengal. Varthema, an Italian traveller noted that about fifty ship carried these commodities annually to many places including Persia. Bengal imported salt from Hormuz and sea shells from Maldives.

Sindh was another region from where sea borne trade was carried on. Its most well known port was Dabal. The region had close commercial relation with i ersia.

The two principal items of import were (i) Horses - that were always in demand for cavalay since supe­rior horses were not bred in India and (ii) Precious metals - i.e. gold and silver, especially silver that was not mined in India but for which there was a high de­mand. Brocade and silk stuff were imported from Alexandrian, Iraq and China. The Sultanate mainly ex­ported grain and textiles. Besides slaves were exported to Central Asia and indigo to Persia along with numer­ous other commodities. Precious stones like agates were exported from Cambay.

Q6 (b). To what extend did “monetary anaemia” afflicted the erstwhile commercial economy during the early medieval period?


Early medieval period represented a feudal period. Feudal system is based on lord and land rights. Favourable condition for the growth of this feudal trend were decline in trade and craft, decline in circulation of coins and agriculture became the mainstay.

The coin available of the period between (750­950 AD) are few and in no way match either in quantity of quality with coins of earlier period. The absence of coin mould in archeological finds are also suggestive of paucity of coins during this period.

There is an another point of view that there was no dearth of media of exchange during this period. To illustrate, it is emphasized that these was not only a long series of Harikela silver coinage but also cowries and more importantly churni coas also functioned as media of exchange.

Apart from doubts about the period of emergence of these coins, their extremely poor quality and pur­chasing power also indicate the shrinkage of their actual role. The overall volume of money circulation was negligible. The relative decline of metallic money during this phase is based on convincing empirical evidence. During 960 to 1200 A.D. Substantial discussion about degree and level of monetisation during the pe­riod. The text such as Prabandh chintamini, Lilavati etc. mention bhagaka, rupaka, karshapana, dinar, drama, nishka and many other coins. Inscriptional references like Siyadoni inscription refers to varieties of drammaas in the mid tenth cen­tury. The Paramana, Chalukya, Chakamana. Pala in­scription corroborate most of the terms found in con­temporary literature.

As far as the actual specimens of coins are con­cerned, Govinda Chandra, the Yahadvala King near Varanasi on U.P., the Chandella ruler Kirivarman, Chola. Kings in Tamil Nadu also issued gold gains. Accord­ing to one estimate, about 9 mint’s were founded in different parts of Karnataka during 12th & 13th C.

Despite the plethora of references of coins, the evidence of overall volume in circulation is almost neg­ligible. Also the coins had poor purchasing power of early medieval coins. All coins of this period were highly debased and reduced in weight. Also in terms of rising population and expanding area of settlement, the use of money seems to have been highly restricted.

Barter was another means of exchange in inter regional and inter-national commerce. These are refer­ences which indicate that carvanas of merchant ex­changed their commodities with those of other region. A parallel development of vedit instrument by which debts and credit could be transferred without han­dling of cash money. There are references of handling as bill of exchange.

To sum up the period 950 AD to 1200 AD wit­nessed partial monetisation.

7. (a). Comment on Turco-Mongol theory of sover­eignty. To what extent was it adopted by Babur and Humayun? (for Answer Join Online Coaching for IAS Mains Exam)

Q7 (b). How did Shivaji organise his administration andfinances to consolidate his power? (for Answer Join Online Coaching for IAS Mains Exam)

8. (a) What was Indian response to European Technol­ogy?


The European impact on India was Firstly feeled with coming of Portuguese. Portuguese ships and guns were seen as the bases of Portuguese superior­ity at sea and attempt was made to copy them. Thus Zamorin of Calicut weaned away two Milanese from Portuguese to manufacture guns for him.

In the field of ship-building the ships at Dabul were reported to have been made christian like. The Ganj-i-Sawai the biggest ship of Aurangzeb was armed with 80 cannons and 400 muskets. However ships were built of unskilled marksmanship of the Indian shipbuilders.

The rulers and nobles were constantly on look out for European novelties. They purchased glasses, spectacles, clocks. Abul Fazl was aware of discovery of America by Europeans. These contacts however did not spread out or induce a more systematic study of western scours. As Bemier lamented there were no academics where subjects like geometry, geography etc. could be taken up for study.

Even in field of military technology, India re­mained backwards. In India there was no improvement on skin bellows, worked by wood as hands. Efficient water pump was another weak point. An Englishman had offered to Jahangir to pump water out of Jamuna. Like the Thames at London for use of ordi­nary people. But the idea was reflected. Absence of water pump meant that mining could not go below water level in mines. In the field of weaving and dyeing, Indian tech­nology was hasty backward. But India was back­ward in silk reeling where European technology was slowly adopted.

India also remained backward in sphere of glass technology. The use of telescope began only in 18th century. The reason for this has been attributed to inabil­ity of science to delink itself from religion which be­came an inhibiting factor in India.

Another view of some western scholars was that due to other worldly or fatalist view of life in India made people unconcerned with progress or caste sys­tem which bounded people in one station in life are no longer accepted.

It has been argued that Indian response to west­ern science was selective in nature depending upon convenience, utility exigencies or other material or pragmatic consideration.

Q8 (b). How far do you agree with the view that the temples in early medieval period were catalyst in spreading education?


The temples during early medieval period were fulfilling many roles. Where a matha was at­tached to temple this complex was a counterpart to monastery of earlier period. Where it received grants of land or village at too becamee a land lord with ac­companying power.

The temple was institution of Puranic sect and as such it too played a civil role as a symbol of royal or local power depending on who was its patron invest. ing in commerce, education etc.

The temple as on institution not only employed a large hierarchy of priest and other administrative skills but also woula have provided religious discourses and recitation of religious text. Thus there were recitation by professional narrators, often with commentary of Puranas, Ramayana and Mahabharata.

Grant of land provided foundation for nuclei of brahmanical learing. Temples received such grants and at times offered them. The widespread distribution of these centres required text and training that were met through increasing number of agrahasas and mathas. This encouraged the growth of lively location for dis­course parallel to the monastic institution of Buddhist and Jams. The network of brahmanical learning ex­pressed gradually established dialogue between vari­ous schools and temples.

:: Paper - II ::

Section A

Q1. Critically evaluate the following statements in about 200 words each:
(a) The educated middle class in the 19th century often found the domain of reason to be oppres­sive, as it implied the historical necessity of civilising colonial rule.


Indian society during those days was characterised by social obscurantism and religious su­perstition. It gave an impression of a decadent soci­ety. Social condition were depressing. Much evil ex­isted and there was ignorance of truth.

The plight of women was horrible. Evils like sari, infanticide, child marriage, polygamy, purdha, were prevalent in society. Caste was a dominant feature of entire social structure and there was a distinct con­cept of privileges prevailed. Caste discremination was rampant and the position of lower caste especially untouchables was degrading.

Colonial rule and its concomitant policy influ­enced Indian life through various channels education, legislation, administration etc.

British introduced western education which im­bibed the Indians with rational, secular, democratic and progressive outlook. They were l to spearhead the movement was women education. They brought large part of the country under the fold of uniform administration. Creation of law and order machinery, police system, introduction of land revenue adminis­tration were some important measures adopted in order to bring about uniformity in administration. They intro­duced progressive legislation like Regulation XVII of Dec. 1829 which abolished sati, Bengal Regulation of XXI of 1795 and III of 1804 which declared infanticide illegal, Act V of 1843 which declared slavery illegal.

The sum total of the influence acted on life and ideas of people in multiple ways. The impact was more pronounced among the educated Indians. A current of fresh ideology and though entered India in wake of colonial conquest which gave birth to altogether new situation of ideological conflict and oppression.

Q1 (b). Railway development in India provides an inter­esting instance of private enterprise at public risk.


Under Dalhousie’s plan railway construction was to be undertaken by British private enterprises under the supervision and control of Govt. Some joint­stock companies incorporated them with free grants of lands and guaranteed interest at rates varying be­tween 4'/z and 5% on capital outlay. Any profits over the guaranteed rate of interest were to be shared with Govt. and it reserved the right to purchase the lines after 25 or 50 years.
The British bankers and investor looked upon railway development as a channel of role investment of their surplus capital. The British iron and steel manu­facture regarded it as an outlet for their products like engines, wagons, rails and other machinery and spare parts by 1901 the total capital outlay was £ 226, 773, 200 on railways. On the other hand railways made the imperialis­tic exploitation of Indian economy and resources very easy for British. The railways provided a cheap and easy system of transport of flow British manufactures into India on a large scale and to oscine raw materials for her British industries. The railways helped a lot to British to destroy the Indian industries and handicrafts.

The railways thus were constructed at an enor­mous cost to Indian tax payer and for an equally enor­mous profit to British capitalist and industrialist.

Q1 (c) The active participation of Aruna Asaf Ali in 1942 movement symbolised the role of women in Indian freedom struggle. (for Answer Join Online Coaching for IAS Mains Exam)

2. (a). In terms of administrative structure the GOI Act of 1858... meant more continuation than change. Do you agree? Substantiate. (for Answer Join Online Coaching for IAS Mains Exam)

Q 2 (b) Punjabis fate after Ranjit Singh was foredoomed as the impulse of nee, Victorian imperialism was bound to overwhelm it. Elucidate. (for Answer Join Online Coaching for IAS Mains Exam)

Q 2 (c) The developments during 1937-1939 greatly undermined the ability of the INC to push through the agenda of national unity. Comment.  (for Answer Join Online Coaching for IAS Mains Exam)

3. (a). What role did economic ideas play in early phase of British rule in the shaping of land tenure policy?


Economic ideas played a very important role in shaping of land tenures during early British rule. The influence of physiocrats in Permanent Settle­ment and that of utilitarians in Ryotwari clearly under­scores this.

Since 1770 i.e. even before Cornwallis arrived, number of company officials and European observers like Alexander Dow, Henri Patullo were advocating for land tax to be permanently fixed. Despite their various ideological orientation they shared a common faith in Physiocratic school of thinking that assigned primacy to agriculture in country’s economy.

Alexander Dow in his book History of Hindustan introduced the idea of permanent settlement. This idea was elaborated by Henri Patullo, an economist. Idea of reorginising Zamindars as proprietors of land or permanent basis was put forward by Philip Francis also an economist.

Eventually, permanent settlement was introduced by Lord Comwallis in Bengal and Bihar in 1793 which recognised zamindars as land lord.

In 1798 when Wellesley came to India he gave orders for its extension to Madras Presidency. Here the problem was to find sizeable Zamindar class as in Bengal. However an alternative was sought and polygars were recognised at Zamindar.

But before this could go very far. In British offi­cial circles these was growing disillusionment with per­manent settlement which provided no means to raise the income of government. This distrust for large land lords was also partly be cause of Scottesh Enlighten­ment which invested on primacy on agriculture and celebrated importance of farmers within agricultural societies. This was also the time when utilitarian idea had began to influence policy planning in India and among them was David Ricardo’s theory of rent seemed to be hunting at a revision of existing system. Rent was the surplus farm lord i.e. its income minus the cost of pro­duction and labour and the state had a legitimate clam to share of their surplus at the expense of unproduc­tive intermediaries whose only clam was by virtue of no worship right. The theory provided, therefore an argument to eliminate the Zamindar and appropriate a larger share of increasing income from the new acquisition of land.

Q3 (b) Discuss the extent to which the Indian renaissance movement contributed toward the sure of nationalist consciousness.


The renaissance movement symbolised the social reform movement which were the 1" efforts to redeem India from the state of all round degradation and to spread this sprit of revival and recreation from sphere to sphere of national life.

These movement were Quiet Revolution-a revo­lution in social and cultural realm. These movement generated a social climate for reforms this was an at­tempt to transform the existing social milieu an attempt to rejuvenate the socio-cultural system.

The movements revived the faith in India’s glory. They instilled a sense of self respect and a new confi­dence in the face of imperialistic disintegration of In­dian society and culture. They provided a cultural defence against the assault of colonial culture. They played a significant role in quest and struggle for a new cultural identity and autonomy.

These movements were not an isolated phenom­enon. The ideas and activities of reformers were indi­rectly related to task of nation building since the first reaction against colonialism took place in cultural arena, it formed the preclude to national conscious­ness. It can be acknowledged that these movement contributed toward nationalist thinking.

The reform movement contributed a great deal to the birth of Indian nationalism. They were country wide movement influencing people everywhere and not just in isolated areas. The reform activities crated the people and the attack on institutions like caste which hampered social create created a sense of oneness in people. There­fore they played an important role in rise of nationalism. Indian nationalism armed at regeneration of entire Indian society irrespective of caste and community. The nation­alist tackled all social evils on a national basis.

The religious reform movement helped many In­dians to come to terms with modem world in fact they arose to recast. The old religions into a new modem would to suit the needs of the new social groups of society. As a result of reformers outlook many Indians began to acquire a modern, secular and national out­look in place of narrow outlook dominated by consid­eration of caste and religion.

The religious reform movement contributed a lot towards the making of modem India. As J. Nehru puts it “The rising middle class were politically inclined and were not so much in search of religion; but they wanted some cultural roots to cling on to; something that gave than assurance of their own worth; something that would reduce the sense of frustration and humiliation that foreign conquest and rule had produced. The re­ligious reform movement after all transformed India into a nation in the making.”

4. (a) To what extent did the process of commercialization of agriculture affect rural scene in India?


Commercialisation of agriculture is a phe­nomenon where agriculture is governed by commer­cial consideration i.e. certain specialised crops began to be grown not for consumption in village but for sale in national and even in international market.

Commercialisation of Agriculture (COA) ad­versely affected the rural peasantry. The negative aspect of C.O.A. is as follows:

(i) C.O.A. did not lead to the growth of strong and prosperous agricultural system. The condition of peasant remained precarious as before.
(ii) C.O.A. did not give boost to agricultural produc­tion which could benefit peasants. This did not impart organised form of agricultural system in any way. C.O.A. points toward gradual decline of agricultural system.
(iii) Owing to C.O.A. products got linked with Indian and world markets. This brought peasant class under influence of market forces. The peasant class got adversely effected owing to imbalances in market condition.
(iv) C.O.A. adversely affected self sufficiency of vil­lage economy and acted as major factor in bring­ing the declining state in rural economy.
(v) Agriculture at that time was subsistence in na­ture and C.O.A. land emphasis on production of cash crops when led to decline in local produc­tion. This adversely affected the condition of peasants. Now under influence of C.O.A. agri­culture got associated with fulfillment of market in place of individual needs.
(vi) Commercialisation effected traditional relations between agriculture and industry. In Indian tra­ditional relations acted as factors for each other’s development which were hampered.
(vii) C.O.A. indicated a commercial revolution. But this was devoid of any support from any technologi­cal revolution, Owing to true the healthy ben­efits which agriculture and associated fields would have enjoyed were lacking.
(viii) An adverse effect of commercialisation on Peas­ants was that their dependence on money lender’s and mediators increased. Peasants received only a small fraction of profit.
(ix) C.O.A. did not encouraged growth of land mar­ket because major profit of commercialisation went to company traders and mediators.

Inspite of having many negative effect commer­cialization in one sense was progressive event. Commercialisation encouraged social exchange and it made possible the transformation of Indian economy into capitalistic form.

Coin mere ialisation linked India with world economy. It led to the growth of high level social and economic system. The important contribution of commercialisation reflected in integration of economy. It also created a base for growth of national economy commercialisation of agriculture led to growth of na­tional agriculture and agricultural problem acquired national form.

Q4 (b) Discuss the factors that led to growth of Dalit consciousness and mention major movements aimed at their empowerment.


Dalit movements were expression of growth of larger national and human consciousness of Indian people. They were expression of democratic awakening of lower caste.

The introduction of new system of education. new political and economic forces which rested on principles of individual liberty, equity, and democratic spirit percolated among Indian masses.

Dalit movement were fundamentally the move­ment to achieve mobility on part of the groups which has logged behind. They were a reaction against the social, cultural and economic preponderance and ex­clusiveness of other class over them.

They also got a fillip through British policy of divide and rule in which census operation played a sufficient role. British policy classifying caste. On the basis of social precedence provided an opportunity for making claims for social pre-eminence a through caste mobilisation.

Improved communication network made wider links and combination possible; new system of edu­cation provided opportunity for socio-economic pro­motion, new administrative system, rule of law under mined certain previledges enjoyed by few and certain economic forces like industrialization threw open equal opportunities for all dismantling social barriers.

All these factors contributed to the shift in posi­tion of untouchables. Social reform movement such as those of Jyotiba phule in Maharashtra and Sri Narayan Guru in Kerala also began to question caste in equality..
Gandhiji integrated the issue of abolition of un­touchability into national movement and major cam­paign and struggles such as Varkom and Guruvayur Satyagraha were organized. Gandhiji’s effort was to make upper caste realise enarmety of injustice done via practice of untouchability. Dr. B.R. Amhedkar emerged as major leader of Depressed Classes by late 1920’s. He concenbated on SCs and formed All Indian Scheduled Caste Federa­tion in 1942. He also cooperate with colonial govern­ment on understanding that he could get more ben­efits for SCs. The All India S.C. Federation also con­tested election, but its candidates lost to Congress.
Others strands also emerged in different regions in Punjab the Ad-Dhann, in U.P. the Adi Hindi and in Bengal the Namashvedsas. In Bihar, Jagjivan Ram who emerged as the most important Congress leader formed Khetmajoor Sabha and Depressed Class League.

In early 1970’s a new trend identified as Dalit Pan­thers merged in Maharashtra as a part of country wide wave of radical polities. The Dalit Panthers learned ideologically to Amhedkar’s thought. By 1950’s Dalit Panther had developed serious differences and the party split up and declined.

In North India new party BSP emerged in 1980’s under Kanshi Ram and later Mayawati who became the chief minister of U.P. in 2007.

5. Critically evaluate the following statements in about 200 words each:
(a) He (Voltaire) was living in the Age of Enlightenment. The age itself was not enlight­ened. E. Kant. (for Answer Join Online Coaching for IAS Mains Exam)

Q5 (b) “All long marches begin with small steps” (for Answer Join Online Coaching for IAS Mains Exam)

Q5 (c) The essence of perestroika is for people to feel they are countryis master n Gorbaehev. (for Answer Join Online Coaching for IAS Mains Exam)

6. (a) How far is it correctt to say that every feature of American constitution was ultimately of English origin?


The American constitution was borrowed from various sources. It also contains elements that were of English origin. The American constitution re­flect the elements of liberties guaranteed by Magana Carta and English Bill of Rights. Political Philosophy and outlook developed in English were adopted. It largely followed the pattern of British constitution.

However it is not correctly to say that American constitution was entirely of English origin. Certain other elements are also visible.

Most of the sections were taken from constitu­tion of Federation. They were modified in light of new experiences. Some elements were taken from the con­stitution of states. The constitution of states were based on the constitution of colonies because most of the colonial tradition had become part of American life. For example the finance bill was first introduced in lower house and the judiciary has the right to review the law passed by legislative.

Constitution also rejects some influences of French philosophers. Montesquien’s ideas about op­eration of power was accepted in constituting the po­litical system. It was linked with principle of checks and balances. Constitution also exhibits anti-absolution prin­ciple. It also exhibits anti-radicalism principle i.e. it negated possible excesses of a democracy. This show federalist influence.

Q6 (b) What do you understand by imperialism? State briefly its unique features in case of Africa.


The 19th century witnessed the emergence of two factors of immense consequences viz. the building of nation and building of empire on unprecedence scale. This movement is designated by term Imperialism. The term imperialism represent a policy of extend­ing a country’s empire and influence in different parts of the world. In its broadest meaning it is national policy of control over new areas. It also carries the suggestion that force is employed both in establish­ing domination and in maintaining it. It can also be considered as a product of basic drives and innate aggressiveness of men and their ever-present desire to dominate or control their environment.

The features of imperialism in Africa are as fallows.

In political sphere imperialism proved to be blessing in disguise for some counties. It was re­sponsible for introduction of western ideas like Na­tionalism, constitutionalism in Africa. It also brought about political unity in Africa. Africa was segmented into different tribal principalities. The presence of foreign rule provided an exiler for different tribes to come together. The colonial powers also introduced an efficient system of administration. The colonial people of Africa were for the 10"’ time exposed to western administration.

The imperialist rule also led to slavery. The prac­tice was commenced by Portuguese in 1515 century. These excited a regular slave market in Lisbon.

On economic front the imperialist powers ex­ploited the African colonies by importing raw naturals at cheapest possible rates and exporting the fineshed products at high rates. They also crippled the local industries. The policy of systematic exploitation re­sulted in drain of wealth and contributed to poverty starvation and bockwardness.

It also adversely affected religion of local people. Christianity became thriving religion in many African countries. Imperialist rule also led to social segrega­tion. The European rulers treated their culture as su­perior to Asian and African cultures and tried to im­pose the same on them.

Q6 (c) To what extent did Napoleons economic war with England become his undoing?


Continental system is the term commonly ap­plied to economic warfare waged by Napoleon on En­gland during 1805-12. Napoleon argued that England’s economy was predominantly based on manufacture and trade. To strike the British commerce is to strike England in heart.

With Decree of Berlin 1803, Napoleon made ef­forts to close the sea board from tranto (South Italy) to Hamburg (Germany). With Milan Decree he brought England under complete blockade. Initially the Napoleon’s continental system met with some suc­cess. Neutral nation like Denmark and Sweden obeyed him. Russian also agreed to implement the system.

To counter this with Order in Council, British also implemented a blockade of all ports of France and her allies. England also bombarded the Danish port of Copenhagen and captured the Danish navy. English could implement their blockade successfully due to their unquestioned supremacy on sea. It was also physically impossible for Napoleon to extend conti­nental system over Europe.

His blockade of British Isles was a paper block­ade because he had navy to enforce it. It was never possible for him to seal the whole European Continent to British goods or to pervert ships from touching British port. As a result French blockade was a fiasco.

Napoleon also failed to present smuggling of Brit­ish goods in Europe. The Ottoman empire in eastern Europe was outside the range of Napoleonic block­ade. British goods poured in continental Europe form Ottoman port of Saluniki.

Napoleon had to follow it a policy of continuous annexation of sea hoard states of Europe in order to make his policy of boycott successful. He annexed almost 2000 miles of European coastline. It caused great strain on his army, finance and administration. It made his regime hateful to annexed states.

Portugal refused to close her ports to British trade. Napoleon’s intervention in Portugal, his pas­sage through Spain and deposition of Spanish king by him and placing his brother Joseph on Spanish throne provoked national feeling. The people of Spain revolted against him and the peninsular war mined him.

The continental system provoked national ha­tred for Napoleonic rule. The result of continental Blockade was impoverishment of allies of France and their consequent hatred for Napoleon. Ultimately the Czar rejected the system. It induced Napoleon to in­vade Russia which brought his down fall.

Thus the Continental system proved to be one of the main causes of Napoleon’s down fall.

7. (a). Critically examine Dutch colonial policy in Indonesia.


The Dutch began to frequent the island of Indonesia in 17'” century. First of all they brought AmboYana Island under their control in 1605. In 1605 they seized Malacca fronts Portuguese. Taking advan­tage of political weakness of these Islands the Dutch established Dutch East India Company in Holland. It made Batavia in Java the centre of its activities and began to gain political excellence.

Culture system: Dutch were anxious to move these colonies a source of their economic prosperity. So they started a new economic system known as Culture system in Indonesia in 1830. Till now the main crop of Indonesia was rice. The Dutch ordained that the farmers should cultivate in portion of their land crop, such at tea, tobacco, black pepper etc. These were taken by government in lieu of rent, so farmers got no return for time and labour. This made their con­dition deplorable. Sensing public resentment against this system. the Government of Holland abolished it in 1870 and replaced it by another system known as Ethical Policy which aimed at encouraging private trad­ing and helping Indonesian or moral ground.

Like other counties of the world the movement for national freedom started in Indonesia in early years of 20th century. In 1908 the P° national organis action called Budi was established in Usada. This freedom movement gained strength during first world war.

In 1927 Dutch government introduced several important reforms in administration. A legislative as­sembly was constituted. Two third of it members were elected and third nominated by Dutch government. Of the nominated members 50% were Dutch and remain­ing were Indonesian. Higher post in administration filled by Dutch selected through competitive exam but by 1941 84% of the members of Indonesian Civil Ser­vices were recruited by from Indonesians.

During second world war in March 1942 the whole of Indonesia came under control of Japanese forces and military government was setup. The Poot-war Dutch Policy was declared by Empress Belhenunna on Dec 6,1942 proposed to constitute an Indonesian common wealth comprising Netherland, Surinam and Kurako where they world enjoy complete autonomy in internal matters.

After Japan’s defeat in war the island retrieved by Allied forces were handed over to Holland. For their administration, Holland set up an organization called Netherland Indies Civil Administration. In mid 1946 political condition in Indonesia was such that Java and Sumatra were independent republic and other inland were under government of Netherland Indies Civil Administration.

On March 25, 1947 an agreement known as Linggodjat. Agreement was signed between Indone­sian republic and Dutch government. An indepen­dent Federal State of Indonesia was constituted by merging other Dutch colonies in South East Asia with Independent Republic of Indonesia. A union was constituted by merging Indonesian united Federa­tion and Holland.

The Hague conference in Indonesia was held on Nov. 2, 1949. According to the decisions taken in this conference. Indonesia was converted into federal state in which Republic government established under the leadership of Dr. Sukarno. Holland handed over the Sovereignity to United Indonesian Sate on Dec 27, 1949.

Q7 (b) “Europe faced peace in 1945 politically disorga­nized and economically crippled. Elaborate.


In 1945, World War II came to an end and in its aftermath Europe faced political disorganization and economic crises. Europe was politically disorganized on two fronts. First was the division of Europe with Eastern Europe under Russia and Western Europe under western power. Second was the political disor­ganization which the European countries suffered within.

The end of world war brought to the surface the glaring differences between Russian socialism and western capitalism. In year 1945 certain effort were made to resolve the issue peacefully.

At Yalta conference in Feb 1945, Russia, US and U.K. participated to plan what was to happen after the end of war. Here some problems erupted when stalin demanded that Poland be given all German territory cast of river Oder & Neisse. It war also agreed that some members of London based government should be allowed to join hubin’s government.

The port dam conference revealed a distinct cod­ing off in relations. Again it was over Poland that main disagreement occurred. Also Germany east of order was under pro-communist Polish Government. The es­tablishment of communist government in Poland, Hun­gary, Bulgaria, Albania and Romania in late 1945 alarmed the west.

Internally the countries of Europe were politically shattered. In elections held in July 1945, Winston Churchill was unseated and a Labour Government un­der Clement Atlee was established.

The political life of France was form by Party strafe and class conflict. There were frequent changes in Prime Minister. A Provisional Government was set up and a National Assembly was elected in Oct 1945 to draft a constitution of Fourth French Republic. In Italy after the war a coalition government was formed. In 1946, the government submitted to plebiscite the ques­tions whether Italy should be monarchy or republic. There was frequent fall of Government in Italy. Post war Germany was in most helpless and pitiable situa­tion. It was disarmed and dismembered. More over it was occupied by 4 victorious powers- communism Russia, US, Britain and France.

Economically there was enormous destruction of lives, homes, industries and communication in Europe. Almost 40 millions people were killed and another 21 million had been uprooted from their homes.

Large parts of Germany, especially her industrial areas and major cities lay in ruins. Much of the west­ern Russia had been completely devastated and some 25 millions people were homeless. France suffered badly too taking into account the destruction of hous­ing, factories, mines and livestock,, almost 50% of to­tal French wealth and been lost. In Italy where damage was very serious in south the figure was over 30%.

8. (a) The Eastern Question has always been an in­ ternational questions. Elucidate. (for Answer Join Online Coaching for IAS Mains Exam)

Q8 (b) Explain the circumstances leading to emergence of Third World and analyse itis impact on world affairs. (for Answer Join Online Coaching for IAS Mains Exam)


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