(Exam Paper) UPSC IAS Mains 2011: Geography
1. Write short notes on the following in about 150 words each: 12 x 5= 60
(a) Geomagnetism and Paleomagnetism
(b) Rossby waves and Jet Stream
(c) Salinity patterns in Indian Ocean
(d) Soil profile in Zonal and Azonal soils
(e) Marine Ecosystem
2. (a) Name the climatically controlled agents of erosion. Explain how they
differ in terms of properties of matter. Compare the landforms produced by each
of them. 30
(b) Explain the concept of Isostasy as postulated by Airy and Pratt. 30
3. (a) Give an account of global distribution of precipitation. 30
(b) “Contemporary global climate change is an anthropogenic phenomenon.” Discuss
4. (a) “Temperature, salinity and density differences in ocean water are the
prime causes of ocean water circulation.” Elaborate. 30
(b) Define the term biome. List the terrestrial biomes and describe the
characteristics of Savanna biome. 30
5. Write short explanatory notes on the following: 12 x 5 = 60
(a) Welfare approach in Human Geography
(b) Secondary cities in the context of urbanisation in developingworld.
(c) Isodapane in the theory of Industrial location.
(d) Population & food security.
(e) Ingredients of Sustainable Development.
6. (a) Discuss the impact of positivism in paradigm shift in Geography. 30
(b) Enumerate alternative strategies of planning for backward regions. 30
7. (a) Distinguish between boundaries and frontiers. Identify different types
of boundaries. 30
(b) Mention the agricultural regions as classified by Whittlessey and discuss
their relevance. 30
8. (a) Discuss System Approach and its applicability in Geography. 30
(b) Critically examine the salient features of Central Place Theory propounded
by Christaller and Losch.
1. On the outline map of India provided to you mark the location of ALL of
the following for which 1 (one) mark is given to each correct entry.
Write in your answer script the significant geographical relevance or strategic
importance of these locations, whether physical/commercial/economic/ ecological/
environmental/ cultural in not more than 30 words for each entry. Four (4) marks
are allotted for each write-up of these correctly marked locations. 5 x 12 = 60
(g) Lakshmantirth River
(h) Bara-Lacha La
(i) Kalakot Fall
(k) Dafla Hills
(l) Tree Island
2. Present a comparative analysis of the regimes of Himalayan and Peninsular
rivers of India and examine their implications in the irrigation system of the
3. (a) Identify the major biosphere reserve of India and discuss their role
in the conservation of forest and wildlife. 30
(b) Give an account of potentiality and prospects of development of marine
resources of India. 30
4. (a) Discuss the potentiality and status of aquaculture in the Ganga Plain.
(b) Assess the scope and development of Pharmaceuticals Industry in India. 30
5. Write about the following in about 200 words each: 15 x 4 = 60
(a) Prospects of Rainbow Revolution in India
(b) Karewa Deposits and their economic significance.
(c) Impact of land tenure on agricultural produce.
(d) Agro-forestry in India.
6. (a) Asses the growing importance of air transport in India and examine its
role in the regional development of the country. 30
(b) Discuss the spatial pattern of the intra-regional migration in India and
examine its implications in regional development. 30
7. (a) Differentiate between conurbation and metropolitan regions. Give a
reasoned account of emerging conurbations in India. 30
(b) Identify the ravine affected areas in India and discuss the environmental
and economic impacts of their reclamation. 30
8. (a) Discuss the problems of environ-mental degradation generated by the
urban wastes in India. 30
(b) Analyse the causes of desertification in India. Represent the desertified
areas of the country on a sketch map and suggest remedial measures to control