(Exam Paper) UPSC IAS Mains 2015: Geography
1. Answer the following in about 150 words each :
(a) Attempt a classification of geomorphic processes from the zonal point of
(b) Discuss; as to how frontogenesis contributes to weather instability
(c) Describe the characteristics of different types of pelagic deposits.
(d) Explain the characteristics of ecological succession.
(e) Comment on the impact of environmental education on quality of life.
2. (a) Discuss the contributions of the American School of Subaerial
Denudation in geomorphology.
(b) What is Potential Evapotranspiration ? Explain how it is used in assessing
the water balance in an area.
(c) Eliscuss the methods of conserving biodiversity for sustainable development.
3. (a) Discuss the basis of Koppen’s climatic classification. Bring out the
salient characteristics of ‘Cs’ type of climate.
(b) Explain with examples as to how channel dynamics has been responsible for
the development of alluvial fans and cones.
(c) Classify soils based on their zonal distribution and describe the
characteristics of pedocals.
4. (a) Explain the different stages of ecological adaptation of man and bring
out the changing balance between man and environment.
(b) “Present-day landforms bear more complexity than simplicity.” Elucidate.
(c) Explain the meridional circulation of the atmosphere and its importance in
5. Answer the following in about 150 words each :
(a) “The welfare face of geography makes it an inter-disciplinary subject.”
(b) “Energy mix is a step towards sustainability.” Discuss.
(c) Discuss Nelson’s method of functional classification of towns.
(d) “Marx’s view on population is more humanistic.” Comment.
(e) “development planning has a component of environmental cost.” Discuss.
6. (a) “Regional synthesis is the crux of geographical studies.” Elaborate.
(b) “Man-induced famines are becoming more common than nature-induced ones.”
(c) Critically examine the theories on population migration.
7. (a) Discuss the relevance of Von Thunen’s model on agricultural location
in the contemporary context,
(b) “Cultural regions are the most suited units to study the diversity of an
(c) Discuss the approaches to the study of behavioural geography.
8. (a) “There is a rejuvenation of environmentalism as a paradigm in
geographical studies.” Comment.
(b) “Geographical traits lead to regional imbalances.” Examine.
(c) ‘“Vital statistics are necessary ingredients for development planning.”
1. On the outline map of India provided to you, mark the locations of all the
following. Write in your QCA Booklet the significance of these locations,
whether physical/ commercial/ economic/ ecological/ environmental/ cultural, in
not more than 30 words for each entity:
(ii) Namcha Barwa
(b) Why does the pharmaceutical industry concentrate largely in the western
region of the country? (In about 150 words)
(c) Explain the pattern of winter rainfall in India. (In about 150 words)
(d) Discuss the relationship of watershed approach to village level planning.
(In about 150 words)
(e) How does natural vegetation affect the formation of in situ soils? (In about
2. (a) How does natural vegetation affect the formation of in situ soils? (In
about 150 words)
(b) Why is the traditional crafts industry in India on the decline?
(c) Explain how modernization of Indian agriculture is affected by unfavourable
institutional factors with suitable examples.
3. (a) Distinguish between ‘agricultural productivity’ and ‘agricultural
efficiency’, and bring out the disparity in regional distribution of
(b) With the help of a map, indicate the principal areas of dryland farming in
the countiy and account for farmers’ suicides mainly in those areas.
(c) Evaluate the contribution of Communication and Information Technology to the
development of economy and society, and examine the relevance of the recently
launched ‘Digital India’ programme.
4. (a) Account for the growing frequency and intensity of floods in India,
and suggest short- and long-term remedial measures indicating the chronically
(b) How does climate change affect the process of desertification of India?
(c) Discuss the scope of replication of ‘White Revolution1 in India.
5. (a) On the outline map of India provided to you, mark the locations of all
the following. Write in your QCA Booklet the significance of these locations,
whether physical / commercial / economic/ecological/environmental / cultural, in
not more than 30 words for each entry :
(ii) Gorakhnath Peak
(iii) Indrakiladri Peak
(b) “Age-sex pyramid is representative of the history of a region.” Explain. (In
about 150 words)
(c) “Mono-functional towns are economically vulnerable.” Discuss. (In about 150
(d) Explain how change in land use can promote eco-development at different
levels in the country. (In about 150 words)
(e) Discuss the social and spatial ramifications of increasing longevity. (In
about 150 words)
6. (a) Decentralized planning through the strengthening of the Panchayat
system is the focus of planning in India in recent times. Suggest a blueprint
for an integrated regional development plan.
(b) In population planning, the thrust of the Government has been ‘planning the
population’ not ‘plan for the population’. Elaborate.
(c) Is planning for a cluster of villages a viable option, when planning for
backward areas of the country? Discuss with suitable examples.
7. (a) Reduction in regional disparities has been one of the priority goals
of national planning in India. How the proposed new Smart urban centres may
contribute to the process?
(b) How has India’s ‘Look East’ policy taken shape in the past two decades and
how it may affect India’s external trade?
(c) Indian island territories are vulnerable to the sea level rise. Explain.
8. (a) Discuss the concept of multi-level planning as practised in India, and
explain the implications of 73rd and 74th Constitutional Amendments in this
(b) Give a reasoned account of river water disputes related to the River
(c) Outline the Government of India’s strategies of conservation of the Western