Syllabus of Examination
Philosophy (Optional Subjects)
History and Problems of Philosophy
1. Plato and Aristotle: Ideas; Substance; Form and Matter; Causation; Actuality
2. Rationalism (Descartes, Spinoza, Leibniz): Cartesian Method and Certain
Knowledge; Substance; God; Mind-Body Dualism; Determinism and Freedom.
3. Empiricism (Locke, Berkeley, Hume): Theory of Knowledge; Substance and
Qualities; Self and God; Scepticism.
4. Kant: Possibility of Synthetic a priori Judgments; Space and Time;
Categories; Ideas of Reason; Antinomies; Critique of Proofs for the Existence of
5. Hegel: Dialectical Method; Absolute Idealism
6. Moore, Russell and Early Wittgenstein: Defence of Commonsense; Refutation of
Idealism; Logical Atomism; Logical Constructions; Incomplete Symbols; Picture
Theory of Meaning; Saying and Showing.
7. Logical Positivism: Verification Theory of Meaning; Rejection of Metaphysics;
Linguistic Theory of Necessary Propositions.
8. Later Wittgenstein: Meaning and Use; Language-games; Critique of Private
9. Phenomenology (Husserl): Method; Theory of Essences; Avoidance of
10. Existentialism (Kierkegaard, Sartre, Heidegger): Existence and Essence;
Choice, Responsibility and Authentic Existence; Being-in-the –world and
11. Quine and Strawson: Critique of Empiricism; Theory of Basic Particulars and
12. Ca-rva-ka : Theory of Knowledge; Rejection of Transcendent Entities.
13. Jainism: Theory of Reality; Saptabhan(ginaya; Bondage and Liberation.
14. Schools of Buddhism: Prati-tyasamutpa-da; Ksanikavada, Naira-tmyava-da
15. Nya-ya- Vais'esika: Theory of Categories; Theory of Appearance; Theory of
Prama-na; Self, Liberation; God; Proofs for the Existence of God; Theory of
Causation; Atomistic Theory of Creation.
16. Sa-mkhya: Prakrti; Purusa; Causation; Liberation
17. Yoga: Citta; Cittavrtti; Klesas; Samadhi; Kaivalya.
18. Mima-msa-: Theory of Knowledge
19. Schools of Veda-nta: Brahman; I-s'vara; A-tman; Jiva; Jagat; Ma-ya-; Avidya-;
Adhya-sa; Moksa; Aprthaksiddhi; Pancavidhabheda
20. Aurobindo: Evolution, Involution; Integral Yoga.
1. Social and Political Ideals: Equality, Justice, Liberty.
2. Sovereignty: Austin, Bodin, Laski, Kautilya.
3. Individual and State: Rights; Duties and Accountability
4. Forms of Government: Monarchy; Theocracy and Democracy.
5. Political Ideologies: Anarchism; Marxism and Socialism
6. Humanism; Secularism; Multiculturalism.
7. Crime and Punishment: Corruption, Mass Violence, Genocide, Capital
8. Development and Social Progress.
9. Gender Discrimination: Female Foeticide, Land and Property Rights;
10. Caste Discrimination: Gandhi and Ambedkar Philosophy
1. Notions of God: Attributes; Relation to Man and the World. (Indian and
2. Proofs for the Existence of God and their Critique (Indian and Western).
3. Problem of Evil.
4. Soul: Immortality; Rebirth and Liberation.
5. Reason, Revelation and Faith.
6. Religious Experience: Nature and Object (Indian and Western).
7. Religion without God.
8. Religion and Morality.
9. Religious Pluralism and the Problem of Absolute Truth.
10. Nature of Religious Language: Analogical and Symbolic; Cognitivist and Non-
Section- A Western Philosophy
1. Dr. C.D. Sharma
3. Dr. Dayakrishna
4. Dr. Y.Masiaha
5. Dr. B.K. Lal
6. Dr. Lakshmi Saxena
Section- B Indian Philosophy
1. Dr. C.D. Sharma
2. Dr. Deo Raj
3. Dr. Hiriyanna
4. Dr. Radha Krishnan
Section- C Socio Political Philosophy
1. Dr. J.P. Sood Vol IV
2.Dr. Shiv Bhanu Singh
3. Dr. O.P.Gauba
4. NCERT Books
Sec. D Philosophy of Religion
1. Dr. Y.Masiaha
2. John Hick
3. Dr. V.P. Verma