Scheme of Examination
Sociology (Optional Subjects)
Paper – I : Fundamentals of Sociology
A. Sociology – The Discipline:
1. Modernity and social changes in Europe and emergence of sociology.
2. Scope of the subject and comparison with other social sciences.
3. Sociology and common sense.
B. Sociology as Science:
1. Science, scientific method and critique.
2. Major theoretical strands of research methodology.
3. Positivism and its critique.
4. Fact value and objectivity.
5. Non- positivist methodologies.
C. Research Methods and Analysis:
1. Qualitative and quantitative methods.
2. Techniques of data collection.
3. Variables, sampling, hypothesis, reliability and validity.
D. Sociological Thinkers:
1. Karl Marx- Historical materialism, mode of production, alienation, class
2. Emile Durkheim- Division of labour, social fact, suicide, religion and
3. Max Weber- Social action, ideal types, authority, bureaucracy, protestant
ethic and the spirit of capitalism.
4. Talcolt Parsons- Social system, pattern variables.
5. Robert K. Merton- Latent and manifest functions, conformity and deviance,
6. Mead – Self and identity.
E. Stratification and Mobility:
1. Concepts- equality, inequality, hierarchy, exclusion, poverty and
2. Theories of social stratification- Structural functionalist theory, Marxist
theory, Weberian theory.
3. Dimensions – Social stratification of class, status groups, gender, ethnicity
4. Social mobility- open and closed systems, types of mobility, sources and
causes of mobility.
F. Works and Economic Life:
1. Social organization of work in different types of society- slave society,
feudal society, industrial /capitalist society.
2. Formal and informal organization of work
3. Labour and society.
G. Politics and Society:
1. Sociological theories of power
2. Power elite, bureaucracy, pressure groups, and political parties.
3. Nation, state, citizenship, democracy, civil society, ideology.
4. Protest, agitation, social movements, collective action, revolution.
H. Religion and Society:
1. Sociological theories of religion.
2. Types of religious practices: animism, monism, pluralism, sects, cults.
3. Religion in modern society: religion and science, secularization, religious
I. Systems of Kinship:
1. Family, household, marriage.
2. Types and forms of family.
3. Lineage and descent
4. Patriarchy and sexual division of labour
5. Contemporary trends.
J. Social Change in Modern Society:
1. Sociological theories of social change.
2. Development and dependency.
3. Agents of social change.
4. Education and social change.
5. Science, technology and social change.
Paper – II: Indian Society: Structure and Change
A. Introducing Indian Society:
1. i. Perspectives on the study of Indian society:
1. 1. Indology (GS. Ghurye).
2. 2. Structural functionalism (M N Srinivas).
3. 3. Marxist sociology ( A R Desai).
2. ii. Impact of colonial rule on Indian society :
1. 1. Social background of Indian nationalism.
2. 2. Modernization of Indian tradition.
3. 3. Protests and movements during the colonial period.
4. 4. Social reforms
B. Social Structure:
1. i. Rural and Agrarian Social Structure:
1. 1. The idea of Indian village and village studies-
2. 2. Agrarian social structure – evolution of land tenure system, land reforms.
2. ii. Caste System:
1. 2. Features of caste system.
2. 3. Untouchability – forms and perspectives
3. iii. Tribal communities in India:
1. 1. Definitional problems.
2. 2. Geographical spread.
3. 3. Colonial policies and tribes.
4. 4. Issues of integration and autonomy.
4. iv. Social Classes in India:
1. 1. Agrarian class structure.
2. 2. Industrial class structure.
3. 3. Middle classes in India.
5. v. Systems of Kinship in India:
1. 1. Lineage and descent in India.
2. 2. Types of kinship systems.
3. 3. Family and marriage in India.
4. 4. Household dimensions of the family.
5. 5. Patriarchy, entitlements and sexual division of labour.
6. vi. Religion and Society:
1. 1. Religious communities in India.
2. 2. Problems of religious minorities.
1. 1. Perspectives on the study of caste systems: GS Ghurye, M N Srinivas, Louis
Dumont, Andre Beteille.
C. Social Changes in India:
1. i. Visions of Social Change in India:
1. 1. Idea of development planning and mixed economy.
2. 2. Constitution, law and social change.
3. 3. Education and social change.
2. ii. Rural and Agrarian transformation in India:
1. 1. Programmes of rural development, Community Development Programme,
cooperatives, poverty alleviation schemes.
2. 2. Green revolution and social change.
3. 3. Changing modes of production in Indian agriculture .
4. 4. Problems of rural labour, bondage, migration.
3. iii. Industrialization and Urbanisation in India:
1. 1. Evolution of modern industry in India.
2. 2. Growth of urban settlements in India.
3. 3. Working class: structure, growth, class mobilization.
4. 4. Informal sector, child labour
5. 5. Slums and deprivation in urban areas.
4. iv. Politics and Society:
1. 1. Nation, democracy and citizenship.
2. 2. Political parties, pressure groups , social and political elite.
3. 3. Regionalism and decentralization of power.
4. 4. Secularization
5. v. Social Movements in Modern India:
1. 1. Peasants and farmers movements.
2. 2. Women’s movement.
3. 3. Backward classes & Dalit movement.
4. 4. Environmental movements.
5. 5. Ethnicity and Identity movements.
6. vi. Population Dynamics:
1. 1. Population size, growth, composition and distribution.
2. 2. Components of population growth: birth, death, migration.
3. 3. Population policy and family planning.
4. 4. Emerging issues: ageing, sex ratios, child and infant mortality,
7. vii. Challenges of Social Transformation:
1. 1. Crisis of development: displacement, environmental problems and
2. 2. Poverty, deprivation and inequalities.
3. 3. Violence against women.
4. 4. Caste conflicts.
5. 5. Ethnic conflicts, communalism, religious revivalism.
6. 6. Illiteracy and disparities in education.
1. Ram Ahuja: Society in India
2. Ram Ahuja: Social problems in India
3. IGNOU notes (especially for thinkers and topic on Indian system)
4. Caste its 20th Century Avatar - M.N. Srinivas
5. participation as freedom - Amartya Sen and Jean Dreze
6. Y. Singh - Modernisation of Indian Tradition
7. Y. Singh - Social tradition in India
8. L.P. Vidhyarthi - Tribal India
9. Yojana (Independence day special 2001 on population)
10. Y. Singh - Social Change in India
11. Niel J. Smelser for Economy and Society
12. Abraham and Francis - Sociological theory
REFERENCE BOOKS OVERALL :
• Sociology - T.B. Bottomore
• Sociology - Harry M. Johnson
• Sociology: An introduction and analysis - Maclver and Page
• Handbook of sociology - Ogburn and Ninkoff
• Social anthropology - Madan and Majumdar
• Social Thought - Abraham and Morgan
• Social structure - M.N. Srinivas
• Dictionary of sociology - Dunean and Mitchel or Penguin
TOPICWISE SUGGESTED BOOKS
• Introductory Sociology: T.B. Bottmore
• Basic contribution of sociological and anthropological thinkers: dictionary of
sociology, Social and cultural process: Maclver and Page and Madan & Majumdar
• Deviance and central: Social stratification - Harlambos and T.B. Bottomore
• Illustrations - Johnson
• Political institutions - Bottomore
• Religious and social institutions - Madan & Majumdar
• Basic Concepts of Indian sociology - Y Singh (Modernization of Indian
Tradition), Villavge, Town, City, Maclver & Page.