::Sustainable development Goals::
The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), also referred as Global Goals, and
Agenda 2030 are targets for the international development. Millenium development
goals which were agreed at the start of 21st century are set toexpire in 2015.
SDGs will take over from millenium development goals. The SDGs were first
formally discussed at the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development
held in Rio de Janeiro in 2012 also referrred as Rio+20. The UN General
Assembly's Open Working Group on Sustainable Development Goals (OWG) forwarded a
proposal for the SDGs. This proposal has 17 goals divided into 169 targets
related to international development. Important among these includes ending
poverty and hunger, improving health and education, combating climate change,
and protecting oceans and forests. The Intergovernmental Negotiations on the
Post 2015 Development Agenda (IGN) began 2015 and a final document was adopted
at the UN Sustainable Development Summit September 25–27, 2015 in New York, USA.
The title of the agenda is Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for
There is a significant departure from the previous framework to now include a
“harmonising” of three elements: economic growth, social inclusion and
environmental protection. For the achievement of sustainable development in the
long run, it is essential to have the right type of goals and indicators that,
in addition to being global in nature, should not ignore the national context.
There should be convergence of the SDGs and the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)
beyond 2015. The role of civil society will be very important for the success of
such goals, and therefore, it is important to mainstream them into the planning
process. The document is being seen as a political document, not a technical
one. Criticism that there are too many — 17 goals with 169 targets makes it a
complex task to monitor, ensure reporting and hold governments accountable. It
is the first time ALL nations adopt the same set of goals, regardless of their
relative position on the development continuum. It is also necessary to have
clear means of implementation for the SDGs, which can be the building blocks
including financing, governance, and availability of technology.
Goals under SDGs are mentioned below:
- End poverty in all its forms everywhere
- End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote
- Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages.
- Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong
learning opportunities for all.
- Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls.
- Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation
- Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for
- Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and
productive employment and decent work for all.
- Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable
industrialization and foster innovation.
- Reduce inequality within and among countries.
- Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and
- Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns.
- Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts.
- Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for
- Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems,
sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, and halt and reverse
land degradation and halt biodiversity loss.
- Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development,
provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and
inclusive institutions at all levels.
- Strengthen the means of implementation and revitalize the global
partnership for sustainable development.
India has achieved mixed success in the millenium development goals. In some
of the targets it has achieved the success like enrollment in schools, reducing
extreme poverty while in other fields like MMR it has not achieved the desired
result. PM Modi said that India is determined to achieve the targets set by SDG.
Indian government has already started working on some fronts like gender
equality with the schemes like Beti Bachao Beti padhao, ending hunger with food
security act and increasing the sanitation with swachch bharat mission.