Beti Bachao, Beti Padhao Yojana
The girl child’s discrimination is rampant in India, it runs
acros all caste, creeds and religion etc. It manifests itself in various forms.
Discrimination with the girl begins even before her birth in the form of female
foeticide and continues afte the birth. The adult sex ratio fell from 972
females for every 1000 males in 1901 to 927 in 1991. It has increased in last
two decades. It has increased to 933 in 2001 and 940 in 2011, but the child sex
ratio (ages 0-6) have dropped from 945 in 1991 to 914 in 2011. Child sex ratio
has declined sharply since 1991. Sex selective abortions are mostly blamed on
technology, but technology alone is not responsible for this problem. Along with
technology mindset and male dominated society are also responsible. According to
Amartya Sen there are two main inequalities which are present against Girls.
They are educational inequality and health inequality. There is a proverb
saying” Educate a man, you will educate one but educate a women, you will
educate a nation”. By the age of 18 girl children have received on average 4.4
years less education than boys. In India, the Ministry of Human Resource
Development showed the average enrolment rate of girls, ages 6-14 and 14-18, as
93.47% and 36.77%. But they also show the 61.5% of girls drop out of school
before completely class XII. Amartya Sen also says that there are more than a
hundred million women missing in the world of which India has 37 million missing
women by 1986. According to UNICEF, in 1984 in Bombay out of the 8,000 abortions
that took place, 7,999 of them were girls.
Government has recently launched Beti bachao Beti padhao
yojana for survival, protection & education of the girl child. It aims to
address the issue of declining Child Sex Ratio (CSR) through a mass campaign
across the country targeted at changing societal mindsets & creating awareness
about the criticality of the issue. Haryana has the worst sex ratio among all
states in the country standing at 879. Looking into this Government launched the
scheme from panipat district of Haryana. The Scheme will have focussed
intervention & multi-sectoral action in 100 districts with low Child Sex Ratio.
It is a joint initiative of Ministry of Women and Child Development, Ministry of
Health and Family Welfare and Ministry of Human Resource Development. Focus
points of the scheme are:
- 100 districts with low sex ratio will be selected and atleast one
district in every state.
- In 100 critical districts, improve sex ratio by 10 points in a year.
- Prevention of gender based sex selective abortion by strengthening the
PC & PNDT Act with stringent punishments for violations of the law.
- Appropriate initiatives which will encourage girls to express their
views and to be heard and participate effectively.
- Reduce gender difference in under-5 child mortality by 4 points by 2017.
- Increase girls enrolment in secondary schools to 79% by 2017.
- Fifty new Kasturba Gandhi bal vidhyalay by 2015.
- Monitoring of this policy will be at three levels. At the central level
monitoring would be done by secretary, MWCD by a task force. At state level
monitoring task force will be headed by state secretary and finally at the
district level monitoring will be done through district action plan.
- Since independence several policies and programmes are launched to end
the discrimination of girl child. Important amongst them include:
- Dowry prohibition act 1961;