Integrated guided missile system : Civil Services Mentor Magazine: MARCH - 2018

::Integrated guided missile system::

The Integrated G uided Missile Development Programme (IGMDP) was an Indian Ministry of Defence programme for the research and development of the comprehensive range of missiles. The project started in 1982–83 with popular political support from the successive governments and bestowed under the leadership of Abdul Kalam who oversaw its ending in 2008 after these strategic missiles were successfully developed. On 8 January 2008, the DRDO formally announced the successful completion of the IGMDP.

Missiles developed under the programme are given below:

1. Prithvi
2. Agni
3. Trishul
4. Akash
5. Nag

The Prithvi missile is a family of tactical surface-to-surface short-range ballistic missiles (SRBM) and is India's first indigenously developed ballistic missile. Development of the Prithvi began in 1983, it has a range of up to 150 to 300 km. The land variant is called Prithvi while the naval operational variant are named Dhanush. Both variants are used for surface targets. Prithvi Missile is a Surface-to-Surface Battle field Missile. It uses a single state, twin-engine liquid propulsion system and strap-down inertial guidance with real-time software incorporated in the onboard computer to achieve the desired accuracy during impact. Prithvi has higher lethal effect compared
to any equivalent class of missiles in the world. Prithvi is a unique missile today having manoeuverable trajectory and high level capability with field interchangeable warheads. Its accuracy has been demonstrated in the dev elopment flight trials. Flight trails for Air force has been completed. This system is now being configured for launching from ship, increasing its capability as a sea mobile system.

Trishul is the name of a short range surface-to-air missile, it has a range of 12 km and is fitted with a 5.5 kg warhead. Designed to be used against low-level (sea skimming) targets at short range, the system has been developed to defend naval vessels against missiles and also as a short-range surface-to-air missile on land. Trishul is a Quick Reaction Surface to Air Missile. It can also be used as an anti-sea skimmer from a ship against low flying attacking missiles. It employs dual thrust propulsion stage using high-energy solid propellant in a maraging steel flow chamber, and is operated on command guidance initially with ka-band gathering and then transferred to the tracking radar. It has necessary electronic counter measures against all known aircraft jammers.

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Trishul, with its quickest reaction time, high frequency operation, high maneuverability, high lethal capability and multi-roles for three services, is state-of-the-art system providing considerable advantage to the Armed forces. This system has gone through development flight trials for army and sea skimmer trials for navy. The final evaluation is in progress before user trials.

Akash is a medium-range surface-to-air missile with an intercept range of 30 km. It has a launch weight of 720 kg, a diameter of 35 cm and a length of 5.8 metres. Akash flies at supersonic speed, reaching around Mach 2.5. Akash Missile is a medium range Surface to Air Missile with multitarget engagement capability. It uses high-energy solid propellant for the booster and ram-rocket propulsion for the sustainer phase. The propulsion system provides higher level of energy with minimum mass, compared to conventional solid/liquid rocket motor, that has better performance with minimum weight of the missile. It has a dual mode guidance, initially on command mode from
a phased array radar and later radar homing guidance with unique software developed for high accuracy. The phased array radar provides capability for multiple target tracking and simultaneous deployment of missiles to attack four targets at the same time, in each battery. Multiple batteries constitute a group centre. The system is highly mobile and has gone through a number of flight trials providing the command guidance.

Nag is India's third generation "Fire-and-forget" anti-tank missile. It is an all weather, top attack missile with a range of 3 to 7 km. The missile uses an 8 kg tandem HEAT warhead capable of defeating modern armour including ERA (Explosive Reactive Armour) and composite armour. Nag uses Imaging Infrared (IIR) guidance with day and night capability. Mode of launch for the IIR seeker is LOBL (Lock on Before Launch). Nag can be mounted on an infantry vehicle; a helicopter launched version will also be available with integration work being carried out with the HAL Dhruv.

Agni 1 Missile is an Intermediate Range Ballistic Missile. Agni-I used solid propulsion booster and a liquid propulsion upper stage, derived from Prithvi, essentially to prove the re-entry structure, control and guidance. The strap-down inertial navigation system adopts explicit guidance, which has attempted for the first time in the world. It uses all carbon composite structure for protecting payload during its re-entry phase. The first flight conducted in May 1989, established the re-entry technology and precise guidance to reach the specific target. Agni-I flight trials having proved the long-range technologies, an operational version of agni with solid-solid propulsion system was test fired in April 1999, which is Agni-II with mobile capability.

Agni-V is an intercontinental ballistic missile developed by the Defence Research and Development Organisation. The Agni-V is a three-stage solid fuelled missile with composite motor casing in the second and third stage. The nuclear-capable intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) has a strike range of 5,000 km, which can cover most of China. The missile will eventually be inducted into the tri-service, Strategic Forces Command, which manages India’s nuclear arsenal. With the Agni-5, India will become part of a small group of countries having ICBMs (range of 5,000-5,500 km) — only the US, China, Russia and France are known to have ICBMs.

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