Punjab Public Service Commission (PPSC)
Preliminary Examination Syllabus - Botany
1. Cell Biology.—Structure and function of cell wall (extra
cellular matrix or ECM), cell membrane and cell organelles. Nucleus, nucleolus,
nuclear pore complex (NPC), chromosome and nucleosome. Mitosis, meiosis,
molecular control involving checkpoints in cell division cycle. Differentiation,
2. Genetics, Molecular Biology and Biotechnology.—Laws of
inheritance. Concept of gene and allelomorph. Linkage, crossing over and gene
mapping. Structural and numerical changes in chromosomes and gene mutations. Sex
determination and differentiation. Structure and synthesis of nucleic acids and
proteins. Genetic code. Regulation of gene expression. Genetic engineering and
crop improvement. Protoplast, cell, tissue and organ cultures. Somatic
hybridization. Biofertilizers and biopesticides. Biotechnology in
agrihorticulture, medicine and industry.
3. Tissue Systems.—Origin, development, structure and
function of primary and secondary tissues.
4. Plant Diversity and Systematics.—Structure and function of
plant forms from evolutionary aspect (viruses to Angiosperms including fossils).
Principles of nomenclature, classification and identification of plants. Modern
approaches in plant taxonomy. Recent classification of living organisms into
three groups (bacteria, archaea and eukarya).
5. Plant Physiology.—Water relations. Mineral nutrition.
Photosynthesis. Respiration. Nitrogen metabolism. Enzymes and coenzymes.
Dynamics of growth, growth movements, growth substances, photomorphogenesis.
Secondary metabolites. Isotopes in biological studies. Physiology of flowering.
6. Methods of Reproduction and Seed Biology.—Vegetative,
asexual and sexual methods of reproduction. Pollination and fertilization.
Sexual incompatibility. Development, structure, dormancy and germination of
7. Plant Pathology.—Diseases of rice, wheat, sugarcane,
potato, mustard, groundnut and cotton crops. Factors affecting infection (host
factors, pathogen factors, biotic factors like rhizosphere and phyllosphere
organisms). Chemical, biological and genetic methods of disease control
(including transgenic plants).
8. Plant and Environment.—Biotic and abiotic components.
Ecological adaptation. Types of vegetational zones and forests of India.
Deforestation, afforestation, social forestry and plant introduction. Soil
erosion, wasteland, reclamation. Environmental pollution and its control
(including phytoremediation), Bioindicators, Global warming.
9. Biodiversity, Plant Genetic Resources.—Methods of
conservation of plant genetic resources and its importance. Convention of
Biological Diversity (CBD). Endangered, threatened and endemic taxa. Role of
cell/tissue culture in propagation and enrichment of genetic diversity. Plants
as sources of food, fodder, forage, fibres, oils, drugs, wood and timber, paper,
rubber, beverages, spices, essential oils and resins, gums, dyes, insecticides,
pesticides and ornamentation. Biomass as a source of energy.
10. Origin of Life and Evolution.—Basic concepts of origin of
earth and origin of life. Theories of organic evolution, molecular basis of
Courtesy : ppsc.gov.in