Punjab Public Service Commission
SYLLABI FOR THE EXAMINATION
BOTANY-CODE NO. (02)
Cell Biology. Structure and function of cell wall
(extra cellular matrix or ECM), cell membrane and cell organelles. Nucleus,
nucleolus, nuclear pore complex (NPC), chromosome and nucleosome. Mitosis,
meiosis, molecular control involving checkpoints in cell division cycle.
Differentiation, cellular senescence.
Genetics, Molecular Biology and Biotechnology. Laws of
inheritance. Concept of gene and allelomorph. Linkage, crossing over and gene
mapping. Structural and numerical changes in chromosomes and gene mutations. Sex
determination and differentiation. Structure and synthesis of nucleic acids and
proteins. Genetic code. Regulation of gene expression. Genetic engineering and
crop improvement. Protoplast, cell, tissue and organ cultures. Somatic
hybridization. Biofertilizers and biopesticides. Biotechnology in
agrihorticulture, medicine and industry.
Tissue Systems. Origin, development, structure and
function of primary and secondary tissues.
Plant Diversity and Systematics. Structure and
function of plant forms from evolutionary aspect (viruses to Angiosperms
including fossils). Principles of nomenclature, classification and
identification of plants. Modern approaches in plant taxonomy. Recent
classification of living organisms into three groups (bacteria, archaea and
Plant Physiology. Water relations. Mineral nutrition.
Photosynthesis. Respiration. Nitrogen metabolism. Enzymes and coenzymes.
Dynamics of growth, growth movements, growth substances, photomorphogenesis.
Secondary metabolites. Isotopes in biological studies. Physiology of flowering.
Methods of Reproduction and Seed Biology. Vegetative,
asexual and sexual methods of reproduction. Pollination and fertilization.
Sexual incompatibility. Development, structure, dormancy and germination of
Plant Pathology : Diseases of rice, wheat, sugarcane,
potato, mustard, groundnut and cotton crops. Factors affecting infection (host
factors, pathogen factors, biotic factors like rhizosphere and phyllosphere
organisms). Chemical, biological and genetic methods of disease control
(including transgenic plants).
Plant and Environment. Biotic and abiotic components.
Ecological adaptation. Types of vegetational zones and forests of India.
Deforestation, afforestation, social forestry and plant introduction. Soil
erosion, wasteland, reclamation. Environmental pollution and its control
(including phytoremediation), Bioindicators,Global warming.
Biodiversity, Plant Genetic Resources. Methods of
conservation of plant genetic resources and its importance. Convention of
Biological Diversity (CBD). Endangered, threatened and endemic taxa. Role of
cell/tissue culture in propagation and enrichment of genetic diversity. Plants
as sources of food, fodder, forage, fibres, oils, drugs, wood and timber,
paper, rubber, beverages, spices, essential oils and resins, gums, dyes,
insecticides, pesticides and ornamentation. Biomass as a source of energy.
Origin of Life and Evolution : Basic concepts of
origin of earth and origin of life. Theories of organic evolution, molecular
basis of evolution.