(Sample Material) Study Kit on Current Affairs for UPSC Mains
India and World Organizations: The Group of Twenty (G20)
The Group of Twenty, or G20, is the premier forum for
international cooperation on the most important aspects of the international
economic and financial agenda. It brings together the world’s major advanced and
emerging economies. The G20 comprises Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada,
China, EU, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Russia,
Saudi Arabia, South Africa, South Korea, Turkey, UK and USA. The G20 Countries
together represent around 90% of global GDP, 80% of global trade, and two thirds
of the world’s population.
The objectives of the G20 are:
(a) Policy coordination between its members in order to achieve global
economic stability, sustainable growth;
(b) To promote financial regulations that reduce risks and prevent future
financial crises; and
(c) To create a new international financial architecture.
Origin and Evolution
The G20 was created in response to both to the financial
crises that arose in a number of emerging economies in the 1990s and to a
growing recognition that some of these countries were not adequately represented
in global economic discussion and governance.
In December 1999, the Finance Ministers and Central Bank
Governors of advanced and emerging countries of systemic importance met for the
first time in Berlin, Germany, for an informal dialogue on key issues for global
economic stability. Since then, Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors
have met annually. India hosted a meeting of G20 finance ministers and central
bank governors in 2002. G20 was raised to the Summit level in 2008 to address
the global financial and economic crisis of 2008.
Organizational Structure of G20
The G-20 operates without a permanent secretariat or staff.
The chair rotates annually among the members and is selected from a different
regional grouping of countries. The chair is part of a revolving three-member
management group of past, present and future chairs referred to as the Troika.
The current chair of the G-20 is Russia; the next Chair will be Australia.
The preparatory process for the G20 Summit is conducted
through the established Sherpa and Finance tracks that prepare and follow up on
the issues and commitments adopted at the Summits. The Sherpas’ Track focuses on
non-economic and financial issues, such as development, anti-corruption and food
security, while addressing internal aspects such as procedural rules of the G20
process. The Sherpas carry out important planning, negotiation and
implementation tasks continuously.
The Finance Track focuses on economic and financial issues.
The Sherpa and Finance tracks both rely on the technical and substantive work of
a series of expert working groups. Additionally, the thematic agenda is
developed through the organization of several Ministerial Meetings, such as the
Joint Meeting of Finance and Development Ministers, and the Labour, Agriculture
and Tourism Ministerial meetings.
G20 Leaders Summits
Seven G20 Summits have been held so far. The First Summit was
hosted by the US President in Washington in November 2008 to develop a
coordinated response to the global financial crisis. At the First Summit, the
Leaders discussed the causes of the global economic and financial crisis and
agreed to implement an Action Plan around three main objectives, namely, (i)
Restoring global growth, (ii) Strengthening the international financial system
and (iii) Reforming international financial institutions.
The Second Summit in London in April 2009 came up with a
stimulus package of US$ 1.1 trillion to restore credit and growth and strong
regulatory provisions, expansion of Financial Stability Forum (renamed as
‘Financial Stability Board’ or FSB) and Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (BCBS),
reiteration of commitment against protectionist trends (including trade,
investment and services) and commitment to reform of International Financial
The Third Summit in Pittsburgh in September 2009 designated
the G20 as the ‘premier forum’ for international economic cooperation. The main
outcomes of the Pittsburgh Summit included to foster a ‘Framework for Strong,
Sustainable and Balanced Growth’ in the 21st century through sound macroeconomic
policies that prevent cycles of boom and bust through a Mutual Assessment
Process (MAP) or ‘peer review’ which is co-chaired by India, a decision to
reform the IFIs by shifting IMF’s quota share to dynamic Emerging Markets and
Developing Countries (EMDCs) of at least 5% from over-represented countries to
under-represented countries, adoption of a dynamic formula for the World Bank to
generate an increase of at least 3% voting power for developing and transition
countries that are under-represented; and ensuring that World Bank and Regional
Development Banks (RDBs) have sufficient resources to address global challenges.
The Fourth Summit in Toronto in June 2010 under the theme
‘Recovery and New Beginnings’ focused on the ‘Framework for Strong, Sustainable
and Balanced Growth’ and completion of Phase-I work comprising MAP (or ‘peer
review’) by groupings of countries. Advanced economies have committed to fiscal
consolidation, i.e. halving of fiscal deficit by 2013 and stabilizing debt by
2016 as part of internal re-balancing. An agreement was also reached on
differentiated approach to consolidating growth and recovery versus exit
strategies and fiscal consolidation, i.e. ‘growth-friendly fiscal
consolidation’. ‘Development’ was introduced for the first time on the G20
agenda to be addressed through a High-Level Development Working Group (DWG).
The highlight of the Fifth Summit in Seoul in November 2010
under the theme ‘Shared Growth Beyond Crisis’ was the launching of the G20
Development Agenda embodied in the Multi-Year Action Plans (MYAP) under the nine
development pillars, viz., Infrastructure (including a High-level Panel on
infrastructure financing), Human Resources Development, Trade, Private
Investment and Job Creation, Food Security, Growth with Resilience, Domestic
Resource Mobilization, Knowledge Sharing and Financial Inclusion.
The Sixth G20 Summit in Cannes in November 2011 reviewed the
global economic situation in the backdrop of the Eurozone/Greek crisis. Its
major outcomes included regulation of commodity derivatives markets, including
Action Plan on Food Price Volatility and Agriculture and Increase in
transparency of energy markets and an expression of support for recommendations
of High Level Panel and MDBs Action Plan on development. The outcome of the
Cannes Summit resulted in the ‘Communique’ and ‘Declaration’ titled ‘Building
our Common Future: Renewed Collective Action for the Benefit of All’ along with
the ‘Cannes Action Plan for Growth and Jobs’.
The Seventh G20 Summit was held in Los Cabos, Mexcio on 18-19
June 2012 under the Mexican Presidency. Mexico had chosen the Infrastructure,
Food Security and Inclusive Green Growth as its development priorities. The
Leaders’ committed to work with developing countries, particularly low-income
countries, and to support them in implementing the nationally driven policies
and priorities which are needed to fulfil internationally agreed development
goals, particularly the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and reaffirmed their
standstill commitment until the end of 2014 with regard to measures affecting
trade and investment and pledged to roll back any new protectionist measure that
may have arisen, including new export restrictions and WTO-inconsistent measures
to stimulate exports. Prime Minister, in his intervention, stated that India was
focusing heavily on investment and have set ambitious targets to keep
infrastructure investment on track and also put in place a problem resolution
mechanism to overcome implementation bottlenecks. On Eurozone crisis, Prime
Minister opined that austerity in the debt-ridden members of the Eurozone can
work only if surplus members are willing to expand to offset contraction
elsewhere in the currency area.
India on its part announced contribution of $ 10 billion to
mop up IMF’s additional firewall system and the overall commitment by G20
members exceeded $ 450 billion in addition to the quota increase under the 2010
Reform. These resources would bavailable for the whole membershipp of the IMF,
and not earmarked for any particular region.
The Eighth G20 Summit would be held in St. Petersberg on 5-6 September 2013
under the Russian Presidency. Russia has identified the following as its
(i) Growth through quality jobs and investment;
(ii) Growth through trust and transparency; and
(iii) Growth through effective regulation.
The discussions in 2013 shall largely be focused on these three priorities
and shall comprise of the 8 areas namely:
(a) Framework for strong, sustainable and balanced growth;
(b) Jobs and employment;
(c) International financial architecture reform;
(d) Strengthening financial regulation;
(e) Energy sustainability;
(f) Development for all;
(g) Enhancing multilateral trade; and
(h) Fighting corruption.
India and G-20
India’s participation in the G20 process stems from the
realization that as a major developing economy India has a vital stake in the
stability of the international economic and financial system. India has been
actively involved in the G20 process both at the Sherpas Track and the Financial
Track since its inception. Prime Minister participated in all seven G20 summits.
India’s agenda at the G20 Summits is driven by the need to bring in greater
inclusivity in the financial system, to avoiding protectionist tendencies and
above all for ensuring that growth prospects of developing countries do not
suffer. India has strived to ensure that the focus of the global community
remains on the need to ensure adequate flow of finances to emerging economies to
meet their developmental needs.
India has welcomed the inclusion of development as an agenda
item of G20 process at the Seoul Summit and supported the Seoul Development
Consensus and the associated Multi-Year Action plans. Prime Minister called for
the recycling of surplus savings into investments in developing countries to not
only address immediate demand imbalances but also developmental imbalances.
India has worked to maintain the dynamism and credibility of
G20 deliberations for establishing a framework for strong, sustainable and
balanced growth, strengthening international financial regulatory systems,
reforming Bretton Woods’s institutions, facilitating trade finance, pushing
forward the Doha agenda. India, as a co-chair of Framework Working Group on
Strong, Sustainable and Balanced Growth, tried to refocus the energies of the
group towards growth, jobs, fiscal consolidation, rebalancing demand from the
public sector to the private, and to risks arising from internal imbalances
within the Eurozone. India remains committed to the G20 process for achieving a
stable, inclusive and representative global economic and financial system.