(Sample Material) Gist of Important Articles from IIPA
Topic: Gender Budgeting to Gender Mainstreaming Shalini
Amartya Sen makes a compelling case for the notion that
societies need to see women less as passive recipients of help and more as
dynamic promoters of social transformation. The education, employment and
ownership rights of women have a powerful influence on their ability to control
their environment and contribute to economic development.
The economic participation of women - their presence in the
workforce in quantitative terms-is important not only for lowering the
disproportionate levels of poverty among women, but also as an important step
toward raising household income and encouraging economic development.
Recognizing that women can leverage their strength increase
bargaining power and enhance capacities and skills through joint action the
approach the government has been to’ organise women into groups and channel
resources to these groups. Women Self-Help groups (SHGs) are implementing a
large number of developmental initiatives including watershed development social
forestry and employment oriented initiatives.
Providing women with access to savings and credit mechanism and institutions
through micro credit schemes and various micro finance initiatives have gathered
momentum in the recent years.
Initiatives, by Government of Karnataka
The Government of Karnataka, has taken up the theme of
women’s empowerment as one of the strategies to tackle the socio-economic
poverty. As a pioneer in gender budgeting of public expenditure, the state
undertook earmarking resources for women in most sectors. Karnataka has achieved
a high degree of progress in gender related indicators on literacy, healthy
employment etc. through introduction .of several successful gender related
programmes (especially through the SHG movement).
Given the multitude of schemes and programmes for women,
spread across various Departments and Ministries of the Government, one approach
towards empowerment of women is seeking convergence of these interventions,
mostly through SHG s or women cooperatives.
Government of Karnataka in the year 2007-08 has categorised
budget allocations as A and B, Category A has 100 per cent budget allocations
for women, whereas Category B has more than 30 per cent allocations. This
budgetary allocation is monitored by Women and Child Development Department
through a scheme called Karnanata Mahila Abhivrudhi Yojana. Under this scheme,
Women and Child Developmer Department steers the implementation of 33 percent
reservation of fund in 25 departments of the Government. The gender specific
benefit which can be given by each department is identified, various departments
which are implementing gender budgeting are agriculture, watershed, sericulture,
industries and commerce, handloom 7 textiles, forest, youth services and sports
welfare of disabled and senior citizens backward classes welfare, Social Welfare
Department. Backward Classes Development Corporation, Minorities Development
Corporation, Scheduled Tribes Welfare Development Corporation, animal husbandry;
It is important to address improvement in women related macro
indicators like literacy, maternal morality rate (MMR) etc. through focus on
coverage of women in following sectors:
Social Empowerment: To create an enabling environment through
various affirmative developmental policies and programmes for development of
women besides providing them easy and equal access to all the basic minimum
services so as to enable them to realise their full potential. This has been
largely possible through formation of SHGs at the village level called “Stree
Shakthi” groups and formation of federations at the Taluka and District levels.
Economic Empowerment: To ensure provision of training,
employment and income generation activities with both forward and backward
linkages with the ultimate objective of making all potential women economically
independent and self-reliant. This has been possible through SHG’s micro-credit
and under various schemes for income generating activities.
Gender Justice: To eliminate all forms of gender
discrimination and thus, allow women to enjoy not only the de-jure but also the
de-facto rights and fundamental freedom on par with men in all spheres, viz.
political, economic, social, civil, cultural, etc.