(Sample Material) Gist of Important Articles from IIPA
Topic: Efficiency in Administration: Measures Required to
Enhance Efficiency in Administration R.D. Sharma
Efficiency is a goal as well as a value of any administrative
organisation. Organisations whose goals-achieving capacity nears hundred or
littleness, can be conveniently termed as efficient. Efficiency is both a
characteristic as well as a value or even an ideal to be achieved by an
organisation. Those public services and organisations may be bureaucratic one,
are bound to be efficient which according to Max Weber are recruited on the
basis of ideal-type-model.
Efficiency is a criterion of administrative evaluation. It is essentially
criterion of making rational choices. Leonard D. White had used criterion of
efficiency in defining public administration.
Any attempt to probe efficiency-an important area of public
services, is fraught with innumerable difficulties because the genere of
political representative of modern Indian and even the main-mandarins are less
enthusiastic towards improving efficiency of the civil services and devise,
seriously implement methods of increase it.
Efficiency has been central objective of governmental reform.
The reform movement in public administration had emphasised that efficiency had
something to do with the effective allocation and control of government
Efficiency and Individual Motives: Barnard defines efficiency
as “satisfaction of individual motives”. He says it is personal in character.
Yet, efficiency scores of all the individual administrators taken together would
inform us about efficiency level of the whole group of bureaucrats or civil
servants. The efficiency of an organisation is measured in the amount of
resources used to produce a unit of out-put. To Herbert A. Simon “efficiency is
attainment of maximum values with limited means."
Efficiency in Administration: Efficiency in an administrative
system is a value, a goal or a criterion to assess the system. An efficient
civil service is quintessence of any government. It lends credence: viability
and plausibility to the government of the day.
It is believed that efficiency in governmental administration is hard to
define. Efficiency or inefficiency, is often said when agreement or disagreement
with particular values is really meant.
Technical Efficiency: It measures the physical wise of
resource inputs in relation to physical output. The physical use of resources
helps in the preparation of utilisation of resources and level of growth and
Economic Efficiency: It measures the cost of using inputs in relation to value
of outputs. It is the central concern of public administration. In public sector
organisations at local level it is difficult to define and measure efficiency.
Extent of Efficiency in Indian Civil Services: Lord Morley in
1909 had advocated “efficiency” in administration in these words “better
government of India depends on efficiency and that efficiency is infact the end
of our rule in India”.
Mr. A.D. Gorewala in his report submitted in 1951 to the Indian Planning
Commission had admitted that efficiency is undoubtedly impaired.
The Indian Planning Commission, from the very beginning, was
concerned about efficient administration when it asked its Deputy Chairman Mr.
V.T, Krishnamachari to study the problems of higher civil service of India (AP
1962), In 1967, too, the ARC in its Report on Centre-State Relations has
mentioned that efficiency suffers due to frequent interference by the political
executive in the implementation of developmental work for their personal and
Prof, C.P. Bhambhri, too, had mentioned that working
efficiently Was a “trait” of IAS, in the slates that they may be deputed to the
Centre. The National Development Council had constituted, before the start of
Second Five Year, Plan (1956) a Committee on Plan Projects, “to promote the
development of suitable machinery for continuous efficiency audit in individual
Dr. Manmohan Singh, in his Independence Day address from Red
Fort (August 15, 2006) had mentioned about “shortage of highly skilled and
qualified employees” in government which is likely to adversely effect
efficiency of civil services.
In the same, he indirectly admitted that the present rate of growth of
economy of the country which stands at eight per cent was never witnessed by