(Sample Material) Gist of Important Articles from IIPA
Topic: Rural Development Schemes in Chhattisgarh P.C.
Chhattisgarh, the 26 state or India, was carved out of Madhya
Pradesh on November 1st, 2001 to fulfil the long cherished dream and aspirations
of the local population mostly tribal and other backward castes. The state of
Chhattisgarh is located between the Northern latitude of 17°52' and 24 and
Eastern longitude 78°58' and 84°28. The state has 16 districts and 146
developmental blocks, Chhattisgarh is known as the “Rice bowl” of Central India.
The population of the state is 20.88 million. The population density is 154
persons per sq. km. (2001 census).
The total geographical area is 1,35,133 sq. km. of which
81,861,88 sq.km is categorised as scheduled area and 88,000 sq.km as tribal
sub-plan area. The population of state, as per 2001 census, is 2,07,95956 of
which 32.46 per cent is SC and 12.20 per cent belongs to ST. The literacy rate
in the state is 65.18 per cent, where male literacy rate is 77.86 percent end
female literacy rate is 52.40 per cent.
Physiographically, the state of Chhattisgarh can be divided
into three district zones. Bastar, Dantewada and Kanker are mostly covered with
forest. The hills forming the plateaus achieve heights between 700 and 800 m
amsl. Chhattisgarh Plain represents mature pediplain and is characterless by a
gently undulating and flat terrain. High mounds or hillocks, rising to attitude
of 700m above msl, distinguish the fringe area. The northern part, i.e. of
Surguja, Koriya, Korba, Bilaspur, Jnshpur and Raigarh districts have an average
elevation of 400 m. it is a part of Maikhal and Hazaribagh ranges of Central
The main river that flow in the State of Chhattisgarh are
Mahanadi and its tributaries like Sheonath, Hasdeo. Mand, Arpa etc. which drains
part of Raipur, Durg, Rajnandgaon, Bilaspur, Raigarh and Sarguja Districts. The
river Indrâvati, a tributary of Godavari drains the districts of Baster and
Dantewada. Most of the rivers are perennial in nature. Generally the drainage
patterns are of dendritic, parallel, angular and radial types. Son, the
‘tributary of Ganga drains part of Surguja and Koriya districts.
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As per the 73rd and 74th amendment-in the Indian
constitution, Panchayat Raj Institutions have been established to strengthen
the, local administration. This has enabled people’s participation in the field
of education, health and sanitation, road an rural development, as well as, is
acting as a bridge to bring the rural masses in to mainstream. In Chhattisgarh,
three-tier Panchayat Raj System has been implemented after 73rd amendment in the
constitution. This has resulted in formation of 16 district Panchayats, 146
Block (Janpad) Panchayats and 9,820 Village (gram) Panchayats. The Panchayat
members are elected representatives and work for five years.
To fulfil the dreams and desires of the masses, priority has been set by the
State Government and Panchayats as per the social structure. The priorities set
at the Gram Panchayat level are:
- To ensure food for poor
- To look after abandoned animals, maintain and manage pasture land
- To ensure education for children by constructing school building
- Establishing building for Health Center
- To ensure basic amenities like water, electricity (light), road, safe
drinking water and sanitation.
- To established Woman welfare schemes
- To ensure assistance to the disabled and destitute.
- Permission of youth welfare, family welfare and sports.
- To construct community space, library, and planning for other social
needs at grass root level.
Rural Development Schemes in Panchayat and Rural Development Sector
The Department of Panchayat and Rural Development, Government
of Chhattisgarh implement various schemes, funded by centre, state and
International agencies. The schemes in operation in the State along with
the-objectives are described in the following paragraphs.
SAMPURNA GRAMMEN ROZGAR YOJANA (SGRY)
The objective of Sampurna Grameen Rozgar Yojana (SGYR) to
provide additional and supplementary wage employment in rural sector and
construction of permanent infrastructure for the benefit of the rural community.
The programme is implemented as centrally sponsored scheme in the ratio of 75:25
of the, cash component. Food grains is provided to state free of cost the
programme is implemented through the Panchayat Raj Institution (PRIs) the funds
and foodgrains, under SGRY is &distributed to all the three tires of Panchayati
Raj Institutions i.e. Gram Panchayats, Janpad Panchayats and District panchayats
in District in the ration of 50:30:20. The allotment made available during
2004-05 under SGRY as in cash and food grains (rice) arc 193.4 crore and 2.36
lakh M.T. grain (rice) out of which 177.57 crores & 2. 91akh food grains have
been utilized arid 348.84 lakh mandays has been generated 56,147 works has been
SWARANJAYANTI GRAM SWAROZGAR YOJANA (SGSY)
The goal of SGSY is towards financial assistance to families
BPL in terms of loan and grants for self employment to ensure minimum earning of
Rs. 2000/- per family. The funds made available dor SZGSY is Rs. 24.01 crore,
out of which Rs. 20.99 crore are utilized. Under SGSY, 825 SGGs were formed, out
of which 378 SHGs have picked up economic activities. Of the above, 264 are
women SHGs. So far, 85 percent of the allocated have been utilised benefiting
PRADHAN MANTRI GRAMEEN SADAK YOJANA (PMGSY)
Pradhan Manitry Grameen Sadak Yojana aims to provide,
connectivity by all-weather roads to unconnected habitations with a population
of 1060, and above by 2002-03, and with a population of 500 by the end of Tenth
Plan Period (2007). For the Tribal, area, the objective is to connect
habitations with population of 250 and above. So far, 485 habitats connected by
203 roads, (1022km) and 2,174 culverts at an expenditure of Rs. 233-98 crore.
INDIRA AWAS YOJANA (IAY)
Indira Awas Yojana (IAY) aspires to provide houses for
families BPL that do not own a house. The beneficiaries are selected at-Gram
Sabha and the beneficiaries construct the houses the financial assistance to
construct a new house is upto Rs. 2,50,007 and that for repairs is Rs. 12,500M
Out of Rs. 24.15 crore allotted, Rs. 20.65 crore have been spent to construct,
5723 houses and, 1994 houses are under constitutions. Thus, 86 per cent of the
funds have been utilized.
PRADHAN MANTRI GRAMODAYA (GRAMIN AWAS) YOJANA (PMGY)
Pradhan Mantri Gramodaya (Gramin awas) Yojana (PMGY) intends
to provide houses for families BPL, that do not own a house the beneficiaries as
selected at Gram Sabha; and the beneficiaries construct the houses. The scheme
is funded by central government (100%). The financial assistance to construct a
new house is upto Rs. 25,000/- and that for repairs is Rs. 12500M For the year
2004-05, our of the available funds of Rs. 3.14 crore, Rs. 2.14 crore have been
utilised to construct houses for specialy/scheduled backward caste/tribe. Thus
4.47 house are completed and, 1868 houses are under construction, utilizing 68
percent of the funds.
WATERSHED AREA DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME (HARIYALI)
IWDP and DPAP programme are being run in the state for water and soil
construction. The financial ratio of centre and state share for IWDP is 11.1,
and that for DPAP is 75:25 Hariyali strives for:
1. Developing waterlands/degraded lands, drought-prone and desert areas on
2. Promotion the overall economic development and improving the socio-economic
condition of the poor and disadvantaged sections inhabiting the programme areas.
3. Mitigating the adverse effects of extreme climatic conditions such as drought
and desertification on crops; human and livestock population for their overall
4. Restoring ecological balance by harnessing, conserving and developing natural
resources i.e., land, water, vegetative cover.
5. Encouraging village community for-
(a) Sustained community action for the operation and maintenance of assists;
(b) Simple, easy and affordable technological solutions and institutional
arrangement that make use of and build upon, local technical knowledge and
(c) Employment generation, poverty alleviation, community empowerment and
development of human and other economic resources of the village.
The budget allocation is as Rs. 34.80 crore under IWDP, and
Rs. 51 crore under DPAP Rs. 35.55 crore. So far Rs. 16.99 crore have been
utilised to treat 33,221.93 hectare of land. Currently, a total of 28 IWDP
projects and 29 DPAP projects are being executed for treatment of 1,026 micro
watersheds, resulting in treatment of 2,85,429 hectare of land.