(Sample Material) UPSC IAS Mains GS Online Coaching : Paper 2 - "Appointment to various Constitutional posts"

Sample Material of Our IAS Mains GS Online Coaching Programme

Subject: General Studies (Paper 2 - Governance, Constitution, Polity, Social Justice and International relations)

Topic: Appointment to various Constitutional posts, powers, functions and responsibilities of various Constitutional Bodies

Appointment to various Constitutional posts, powers, functions and responsibilities of various Constitutional Bodies

Constitutional Bodies in India are the permanent or semi-permanent organization within the machinery of government. These bodies are responsible to look after the administration of specific functions.

The functions of these bodies are normally executive in character. Moreover, different types of organisation or commissions are used for advisory functions. The bodies are of national importance and help in the effective function of the government.

India is a Socialist, Secular, Democratic Republic and after independence, the introduction of the independent bodies as a part of the government helped the country. These constitutional or independent bodies have extensive administrative functions. The chief of these bodies are either appointed by the president of India or the Prime Minister serve as the chairman.

Election Commission of India

Among the major Constitutional Bodies in India, Election Commission is a permanent Constitutional Body. It was established in accordance with the Constitution on 25th January 1950. The Constitution has vested to this body superintendence, direction and control of the entire process for conduct of elections. Comptroller and Auditor General of India is another authority established by the Constitution of India. He is provided with the power auditing all receipts and expenditure of the Government of India and the state governments. In order to ensure independence of the office of the Comptroller and Auditor General from the executive government, the position thus remains permanent.

The Election Commission performs following functions:
a) The superintendence, direction & control of elections.
b) To conduct elections of various bodies.
c) To advice the President or Governor of a State for disqualification of any member.
d) To pass any order in respect of the conduct of the elections when there is no law or rule made under the law.

Planning Commission of India

Planning Commission of India is an organization in the Government of India, which formulates India`s Five-Year Plans, among other functions. The planning commission was charged with the service of the opportunities to all for employment in the service of the community. The Planning Commission is reporting directly to the Prime Minister of India. It was established on 15 March 1950, with Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru as the chairman. The Planning Commission does not derive its creation from either the Constitution or statute, but is an arm of the Central/Union Government.

Functions of Planning Commission:

The main functions of the Planning Commission are:
1. Assessment of the material, capital and human resources of the country, including technical personnel, and formulation of proposals for augmenting such of these resources as are found to be deficient.
2. Formulation of Plans for the most effective and balanced utilization of the country's resources.
3. Definition of stages in which the Plan should be carried out or a determination of priorities and allocation of resources for completion of each stage.
4. Determination of the nature of the machinery necessary for the implementation of the Plan in all its aspects.
5. Appraisal from time to time of the progress achieved in the execution of each stage of the Plan.
6. Public co-operation in national development.
7. Perspective planning.

Finance Commission

Finance Commission also serves a constitutional body for the purpose of allocation of certain resources of revenue between the Union and the State Governments. It was established under Article 280 of the Indian Constitution by the President of India. It was formed to define the financial relations between the centre and the state.

Functions of the Finance Commission can be explicitly stated as:
1. Distribution of net proceeds of taxes between Centre and the States, to be divided as per their respective contributions to the taxes.
2. Determine factors governing Grants-in Aid to the states and the magnitude of the same.
3. To make recommendations to president as to the measures needed to augment the Consolidated Fund of a State to supplement the resources of the panchayats and municipalities in the state on the basis of the recommendations made by the Finance Commission of the state.

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