Sample Material of Our IAS Mains GS Online Coaching Programme
Subject: General Studies (Paper 4 - Ethics, Integrity, and
Aptitude and Foundational Values for Civil Services
‘Public Services’ are generally defined to mean the civil
services constituted by the government to translate all its plans and programmes
into implement-able action. In common usage, civil service means that branch of
governmental machinery which is concerned not with law making but with law
enforcing functions. In the executive branch of the government, there are two
parts, the ministers and civil servants. The civil servants carry out the orders
of the ministers and advise them in policy formulation. In administrative
parlance, public services have a slightly wider connotation in the sense that
they are taken to cover, besides civil servants, extended group of employees who
may be working in public sector undertakings, nationalised banks and other
quasi-governmental organisations funded wholly or partly by the government.
While the civil servants are the holders of civil posts, whose remuneration in
India is paid out of Consolidated Fund of India, others are not so paid.
Relationship between the Government and Public Services
The art of governance and administration has been the
integral feature of human society. For governance, there has always been a
government, whatever be its form and for carrying out the objectives of the
government, there has always been the public services. Public services have
always been an important arm of the government for formulation, implementation,
monitoring and evaluation of its programmes. Thus, the kind, and the character
of the public services would depend on the type of the government and the nature
and the scale of the tasks to be performed by it.
Bureaucrats have more knowledge, experience,
intergovernmental ties and time than the politicians. Both are actually
dependent on each other. The relationship between the government and public
services has provided that the dichotomy between policy formulation and
implementation can never be strictly maintained in practice. Experience has
shown that this type of compartmentalization between governmental and
administrative activities is partly, but not wholly true. It is very difficult
for the government to be only concerned with policy formulation whereas for the
services to only deal with administration of these formulated policies. Both in
theory and practice, there is frequent crossing of boundaries, as a result a
relationship of complimentarity, mutuality and interdependability has developed
betwien the two. The government sets the goals for public services, hence it is
instrumental as a tool to achieve these goals. The role of public services is
changing with time. A status-quo bound public services can never solve the new
and growing administrative problems. Public services have to change in a, way
that is conducive to the development innovative administrative programmes and
systematic progress of the country. Its scope is widening and one cannot think
of all-round development without effective public services.
Growth in the Functions of Public Services
The public officials are required to perform all the tasks
and duties arising out of the obligations of the government in rendering service
to its people. Some of these tasks are, advising ministers on policy issues,
supervising all aspects of administrative, technical and scientific programmes,
economic and financial activities, social welfare and services. They are also
engaged with delegated legislation, administrative adjudication and public
With the increase in the welfare functions the purpose- and
the scope of the administration have been completely reoriented. The U.N.
Handbook noted: The State is expected today to he the accelerator of economic
and social change and. no longer the preserver of the status quo. And in its new
role as the prime mover and stimulator of national development, it is expected
to spread the benefits of economic and social progress to everyone.
No longer dare a government indefinitely limit the enjoyment
of the fruits of the earth and of man’s labour and ingenuity to a small
Moreover, the modem stale is expected to achieve these
purposes within the general framework of the consent of the people, and with due
regard to the rule of law and individual human rights. It is difficult today to
find a State, whatever its present power structure that does not call itself a
democracy, a government of the people.
Civil servants perform the functions of:
• Advising the government regarding the programme Providing
the ministers with necessary information and statistics.
• Implementing the plans, policies and programmes formulated by the Government.
• Monitoring and evaluating the programmes of the Government.
• Carrying out the tasks delegated to them by the Government.
• Determining cases on issues involving rights and obligations of private
citizens and parties.
A modern State may act as the director, entrepreneur or
stimulator of private initiative, or indeed, in all the three capacities. In a
socialist economy practically all organised effort is placed in the public
sector and its entire management becomes the concern of the public services.
Many countries because of their prevailing social and economic conditions and
availability of resources are committed to reserving the largest possible sphere
of activity to private enterprise and local initiative. But even in these
countries vast increasing functions and activities concerning national level
opinion are undertaken by the government. The capitalist economies have
witnessed an expansion of their public services. In these countries, many such
areas have come up which are solely under the public sector, where the private
sector is not able to enter.
The twentieth century, thus, is witnessing an extension of
governmental functions beyond all limits. The concept of welfare and service
State has been almost universally accepted. Governments have taken up the
responsibility of utilization of manpower, natural resources and technology to
create an environment conducive to all-round economic development and social
This further strengthens the role of public services. The
demands of the people upon their government have become insistent, the
government is considered to be an agency to meet these urgent demands and devise
ways to overcome social and economic deficiencies in the administrative system.