(Sample Material) UPSC IAS Mains GS Online Coaching : Paper 4 - "Aptitude"

Sample Material of Our IAS Mains GS Online Coaching Programme

Subject: General Studies (Paper 4 - Ethics, Integrity, and Aptitude)

Topic: Aptitude


Aptitude and Foundational Values for Civil Services

Public/civil services

‘Public Services’ are generally defined to mean the civil services constituted by the government to translate all its plans and programmes into implement-able action. In common usage, civil service means that branch of governmental machinery which is concerned not with law making but with law enforcing functions. In the executive branch of the government, there are two parts, the ministers and civil servants. The civil servants carry out the orders of the ministers and advise them in policy formulation. In administrative parlance, public services have a slightly wider connotation in the sense that they are taken to cover, besides civil servants, extended group of employees who may be working in public sector undertakings, nationalised banks and other quasi-governmental organisations funded wholly or partly by the government. While the civil servants are the holders of civil posts, whose remuneration in India is paid out of Consolidated Fund of India, others are not so paid. Relationship between the Government and Public Services

The art of governance and administration has been the integral feature of human society. For governance, there has always been a government, whatever be its form and for carrying out the objectives of the government, there has always been the public services. Public services have always been an important arm of the government for formulation, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of its programmes. Thus, the kind, and the character of the public services would depend on the type of the government and the nature and the scale of the tasks to be performed by it.

Bureaucrats have more knowledge, experience, inter­governmental ties and time than the politicians. Both are actually dependent on each other. The relationship between the government and public services has provided that the dichotomy between policy formulation and implementation can never be strictly maintained in practice. Experience has shown that this type of compartmentalization between governmental and administrative activities is partly, but not wholly true. It is very difficult for the government to be only concerned with policy formulation whereas for the services to only deal with administration of these formulated policies. Both in theory and practice, there is frequent crossing of boundaries, as a result a relationship of complimentarity, mutuality and interdependability has developed betwien the two. The government sets the goals for public services, hence it is instrumental as a tool to achieve these goals. The role of public services is changing with time. A status-quo bound public services can never solve the new and growing administrative problems. Public services have to change in a, way that is conducive to the development innovative administrative programmes and systematic progress of the country. Its scope is widening and one cannot think of all-round development without effective public services.

Growth in the Functions of Public Services

The public officials are required to perform all the tasks and duties arising out of the obligations of the government in rendering service to its people. Some of these tasks are, advising ministers on policy issues, supervising all aspects of administrative, technical and scientific programmes, economic and financial activities, social welfare and services. They are also engaged with delegated legislation, administrative adjudication and public relations:

With the increase in the welfare functions the purpose- and the scope of the administration have been completely reoriented. The U.N. Handbook noted: The State is expected today to he the accelerator of economic and social change and. no longer the preserver of the status quo. And in its new role as the prime mover and stimulator of national development, it is expected to spread the benefits of economic and social progress to everyone.

No longer dare a government indefinitely limit the enjoyment of the fruits of the earth and of man’s labour and ingenuity to a small privileged class.

Moreover, the modem stale is expected to achieve these purposes within the general framework of the consent of the people, and with due regard to the rule of law and individual human rights. It is difficult today to find a State, whatever its present power structure that does not call itself a democracy, a government of the people.

Civil servants perform the functions of:

• Advising the government regarding the programme Providing the ministers with necessary information and statistics.
• Implementing the plans, policies and programmes formulated by the Government.
• Monitoring and evaluating the programmes of the Government.
• Carrying out the tasks delegated to them by the Government.
• Determining cases on issues involving rights and obligations of private citizens and parties.

A modern State may act as the director, entrepreneur or stimulator of private initiative, or indeed, in all the three capacities. In a socialist economy practically all organised effort is placed in the public sector and its entire management becomes the concern of the public services. Many countries because of their prevailing social and economic conditions and availability of resources are committed to reserving the largest possible sphere of activity to private enterprise and local initiative. But even in these countries vast increasing functions and activities concerning national level opinion are undertaken by the government. The capitalist economies have witnessed an expansion of their public services. In these countries, many such areas have come up which are solely under the public sector, where the private sector is not able to enter.

The twentieth century, thus, is witnessing an extension of governmental functions beyond all limits. The concept of welfare and service State has been almost universally accepted. Governments have taken up the responsibility of utilization of manpower, natural resources and technology to create an environment conducive to all-round economic development and social well-being.

This further strengthens the role of public services. The demands of the people upon their government have become insistent, the government is considered to be an agency to meet these urgent demands and devise ways to overcome social and economic deficiencies in the administrative system.

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