Sample Material of Our IAS Mains GS Online Coaching Programme
Subject: General Studies (Paper 3 - Technology, Economic
Development, Bio diversity, Environment, Security and Disaster Management)
Topic: E-technology in the aid of Farmers
E-technology in the aid of Farmers
In the context of agriculture, the potential of information
technology (IT) can be studied under broadly two outcomes viz. direct
contribution to farm productivity and indirect contribution.The Precision
farming is the result of direct,- contribution of-agriculture technology for
farm productivity. The indirect tools help farmer’s take informed and quality
decisions which will have positive impact on the way agriculture and allied
activities are conducted farmer farmer urgently requires timely and reliable
sources of information inputs for taking decisions. At present, the farmer
depends on trickling down of decision inputs from conventional sources
which are slow and unreliable.The changing environment faced by Indian farmers
makes information not merely useful, but necessary to remain competitive.
• Precision Farming refers to precise application of
agricultural inputs based on soil, weather and cop requirement to maximize
sustainable productivity, quality and profitability.
• It includes the use of latest technologies such as remote- sensing (RS), GPS,
and geographical information system (GIS) with an objective to improve
profitability and productivity.
POTENTIAL OF PRECISION FARMING
• The potential of precision farming lies in the precise use
of farm inputs such as water, fertilizers, her bides and pesticides and
the farm equipments. This implies that rather than managing an entire field
based upon some hypothetical average condition, precision farming recognizes
site -specific requirements within fields and adjusts management actions
• Thus, Precision farming allows taking decisions quickly for small areas within
HOW IT IS DONE?
• A filed is divided into management zones called grids on
the basis of soil pH, nutritional status, pest infestation, yield rates, and
other factors that may affect crop production.
• The management decisions are based on the requirements of each zone. o The
tools such as” GIS, GPS, etc. are used to control zone inputs. With the use of
GPS, exact location for a particular management decision can be found.
• For example a farmer mounts a GPS device on the tractor; while applying the
fertilizers or pesticides.
• Crop yield can also be monitored to create maps that show the high and
low production areas of a field for improved management decisions.
TECHNOLOGIES USED IN PRECISION AGRICULTURE MAPPING & DATA
• Maps generation is the first step in Precision Farming. The
maps measure spatial variability and provide the basis for controlling spatial
variability. Mapping is done with data collection in the filed related to
various spatial variables such as soil type, soil nutrition status, crop
density, infestations etc.
• The data is collected using soil probes and other sucl\tool s. M apping and
data collection can be done using the RS, GIS and manual inputs.
GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM (GPS) RECELYERS
• The GPS satellites broadcast the signals that allow/the GPS
receivers to compute their location. The information is provided while in
motion. o Having precise location information at any time allows soil and crop
measurements to be mapped.
• The grain yield monitors measure and record the yield of
the crop, which is essential formaking sound management decisions. If the yield
maps are used properly, they would provide important feedback in determining the
inputs such as fe r til i ze r ame ndme nts, se e d, pesticides and
cultural practices including tillage and irrigation.
• Remote sensing refers to collection of data from a
distance. The data sensors can simply be hand-held devices, mounted on
aii-craftpc satellite:based. The remote, sensing provides information about the
cro p he al th , mo i stu re n u tri e nts ,- compaction, crop diseases etc.
o For example, the near infrared imaged that are highly correlated with healthy
plant tissue can be recorded in the cameras. o RS also provides information
about the in- season variability that affects crop yield and extent of crop
• Geographic information systems (GIS) o Geographic information systems (GIS)
use feature attributes and location data to produce maps.
PRECISION FARMING AND INDIA
• Though widely adopted in developed countries, the adoption
of precision farming in India is yet in infancy primarily due to its
unique pattern of land holdings, poor infrastructure, lack of farmers’
inclination to take risk, socio- economic and demographic conditions.