(Sample Material) IAS Mains GS Online Coaching : Paper 1 - "Effect Of Globalization On Indian Society"

Sample Material of Our IAS Mains GS Online Coaching Programme

Subject: General Studies (Paper 1 - Indian Heritage and Culture, History & Geography of the World & Society)

Topic: Effect Of Globalization On Indian Society


20 years is a long time, measuring up to a generation, almost. For those, a shade before this generation leap transpired, the idea of globalization has always been an issue of immense intrigue. Imperialism, capitalism, modernization; globalization is all this and more. It’s appropriately a socio-political economic process that has converted the world into a proverbial global village, but doubts remain over the viability of this freshet of consumerism which has become the force behind Government’s neoliberal policymaking. A market driven approach works in developed economies where internal inequalities are next to nothing, but in a country like ours, the idea of globalization only fuels the prevalent skewed power equations, as a result of which it divides the society into stark gainers and losers. This is not to suggest that globalization is the marauding monster we must detest, it’s just that it works in the Indian scenario with a fair degree of moderation. It has successfully dissolved physical boundaries and obliterated the importance of nation states, it has made earth a flat planet, given us immense choices, exposed us to the inexorable explosion of innovations and possibilities and in the process, made the rich richer and happier. This, on the flip side has sounded death knell for unorganized sectors, trade unions and farmers.

Farmers across the world have been the biggest losers because of the inefficient price mechanisms while trade unions lose because of the corresponding loss of bargaining power. Globalization is creating more losers than gainers and the losses are not just economic. But translate into losses of lives, case in point being the increased number of farmer suicides across India in recent years. With the Government’s expenditure on agriculture successively declining and its focus shifting towards cash crops (a classic neoliberal practice), farmers are pushed into the irreversible debt cycle, culminating in years of bondage and eventually, suicides.
In agrarian economies like ours, globalization is doing its bit in promulgating ethnic hegemony and fostering economic divide. Rural economies have collapsed, agrarian crisis has amplified, inequality has intensified while public expenditure in agriculture has shrunk to less than 2% of the GDP.For every millionaire that we produce, there are 700 others who go without food. For a country whose 60% population depends on agriculture, the price of neoliberalism has indeed been very high.

The solution lies in alternate globalization that depends on human rights’ movements, women rights’ movements and pro environment movements. Globalization is welcome in the Indian society but not at the cost of unemployed peasants, landless laborers, dying farmers, hordes of hungry millions and debt inducing suicidal agrarian policies. The concept of flat globe has oodles of eye appeal, but the sight of countless, nameless dying souls-the victims of globalization- is too high a cost to entail.


The population of Kanpur city is calculated as on 2010 is about 5 million (Census of India, 2011). Cawnpore (Kanpur) is well known as Manchester of east since the British rule over India, and was a main hub of industries. Many well known industries had worked in the heart of Kanpur city successfully in the field of jute, textile and leather with the world famous brands name like, Duncan, Lalimlee (Cawnpore Woolen Mills, well known for the military and general purpose blanket manufacturer), JK jutes, and Woodland leather. The migration of working class has attracted the attention of masses during the entire British period, after independence, Kanpur became one of the populated and polluted cities of north India. Presently most of the industries have been locked out, while their large buildings and sheds can be seen in all parts of the city, similar to any ruined fort of Indian historical place. The working class has left alone to struggle and fight with the poverty and livelihood in the urban areas in search of livelihood and survival. Meanwhile, frequents slumps in the world economy, the policy makers were in the search of new markets for selling their product and survival. Government of India has decided to follow the path of open market, liberalization and in the language of gentle men it was named as ‘globalization’ on the theme of world. One of the defining moments of the crisis of 1991 was the decision to mortgage gold abroad as security for the loan. The loan had become necessary because India had reserved fund for only three weeks of imports. The decision to move gold out of India was described as a national humiliation in the political and social groups. The Congress party attacked the dispatch of gold in its political campaigns against Chandra Shekhar, though Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi saw nothing wrong in using the country’s gold to help its industries leaders saved Indian economy for becoming bankrupt for the time being but unable to protect the typical Indian culture and traditional values in front of the westernization for reshape and allowed multinational industrial groups to play in huge and expandable Indian market. At present Globalization is influencing every sphere of social life all over the world.

The rate of crime has increased drastically specifically against the women during last decade. 35 cities having population over 1 million have been identified as mega cities as per population census 2001. Delhi has accounted for 29.5% of rape cases, 31.8% of kidnapping & abduction cases, 15.6% of dowry deaths, and 14.2% of cruelty by husband and relatives and 21.5% of molestation cases among 35 cities. Similar observations were found in Kanpur urban based families and the answer given by the respondents and local news sources/papers. Females of Kanpur city not wearing costly jewelries, while going out of house due to fear of chain snatching incidents.

Globalization has led to increased environmental threats, increased immigration. Integration of market has resulted in a new products and life style putting prominence and open sex, similarly families can-not remains un-affected by its affects. Scholars increasingly recognize that the effects of globalisation are uneven and are mediated by class and gender. Certainly in upper middle circles, new thinking about marriage, family, and gender arrangements appears to be affecting both men and women.

Our survey was based on the interview schedule which was conducted with about 300 Kanpur urban based families/households todetermine as how they are been affected by globalization. We have found that the respondents are being affected by globalisation and their traditional family pattern is changing at higher speed as compared to pre 1990s period.


Joint family system is considered as one of the three fundamental institution of Indian society amongst the village and caste [Shah, 1998]. While Indian families are classified as: (i) the elementary (ii) extended family. The elementary family system has further sub-categorization based on the several factor. There are a very less example of the other family kinds like, single parent family, gay or lesbian as found in developed countries as researchers are trying to investigate them in other countries.

An elementary family is mainly defined as a household composed of parents and children plus one or more person. Indian society has witnessed women as less physical powerful as compared with men as described in the Hindu mythological books, due to that she has not given fundamental right of property for centuries. The right of landownership or property goes to the elder male members of the family, while female member either married or un-married treated as ‘Praya dhan’ (the property itself of others).

To Get Full Material Join General Studies - 1 Online Course

Click Here to Join Online Coaching for IAS Mains General Studies - I, II, III & IV (Combo)

Click Here to Buy IAS Mains General Studies Study Kit in Hard Copy

<<Go Back To Main Page