(Sample Material) UPSC IAS Mains GS Online Coaching : Paper 4 - "Emotional Intelligence "

Sample Material of Our IAS Mains GS Online Coaching Programme

Subject: General Studies (Paper 4 - Ethics, Integrity, and Aptitude)

Topic: Emotional Intelligence

Emotional Intelligence

The phrase emotional intelligence, or its casual shorthand EQ, has become ubiquitous. Emotional intelligence ‘Eli refers to the ability to perceive, control and evaluate emotions. Some researchers suggest that emotional intelligence can be learned and strengthened, while others claim it is an inborn characteristic.

Since 1990, Peter Salovey and John D. Mayer have been the leading researchers on emotional intelligence. In their article “Emotional Intelligence”, they defined emotional intelligence as, “the subset of social intelligence that involves the ability to monitor one’s own and others’ feelings and emotions, to discriminate among them and to use this information to guide one’s thinking and actions”. David Caruso: “It is very important to understand that emotional intelligence is not the opposite of intelligence. it is not the triumph of heart over head- it is the unique intersection of both.”

Freedman et al. “Emotional Intelligence is a way ; of recognizing, understanding, and choosing how we think, feel, and act. It shapes our interactions with others and our understanding of ourselves. It defines how and what we learn; it allows us to set priorities; it determines the majority of our daily actions. Research suggests it is responsible for as much as 80% of the “success” in our lives.”

Mayer & Salovey: “People high in emotional intelligence are expected to progress more quickly through the abilities designated and to master more of them.”

John D. Mayer: “An emotion occurs when there are certain biological, certain experiential, and certain cognitive states which all occur simultaneously.”

The Four Branches of Emotional Intelligence

Salovey and Mayer proposed a model that identified four different factors of emotional intelligence: the perception of emotion, the ability to reason using emotions, the ability to understand emotion and the ability to manage emotions.

Perceiving Emotions: The first step in understanding emotions is to accurately perceive them. In many cases, Uiis might involve understanding nonverbal signals such as body language and facial expressions

Using Emotions: The next step involves using emotions to promote thinking and cognitive activity. Emotions help prioritize what we pay attention and react to: we respond emotionally to things that garner our attention.

Understanding Emotions: The emotions that we perceive can carry a wide variety of meanings. If someone is expressing angry emotions, the observer must interpret the cause of their anger & what it might mean. For example, if your boss is acting angry, it might mean thai he is dissatisfied with your work; or it could be because he got a speeding ticket on his way to work that morning or that he’s been fighting with his wife.

Managing Emotions: The ability to manage emotions effectively is a key part of emotional intelligence. Regulating emotions, responding appropriately and responding to the emotions of others are all important aspect of emotional management According to Salovey and Mayer, the four branches of their model are. “arranged from more basic psychological processes to higher, more psychologically integrated processes. For example, the lowest level branch concerns the (relatively) simple abilities of ( perceiving and expressing emotion. In contrast, the highest concerns the conscious, reflective regulation of emotion”.

Dr Goleman asserted that “The criteria for success al work are changing. We are being judged by a new yardstick: not just by how smart we are. or by our training and expertise, but also by how well handle ourselves and each other This yardstick is increasingly applied in choosing who will be hired and who will not, who will be let go and who retained, who past over and who promoted...” Golcman’s definition of emotional intelligence proposes four broad domains of EQ which consist of the following competencies:

I. Self-Awareness

• Emotional self-awareness; Reading one’s own emotions and recognizing their impact

• Accurate self-assessment; knowing one’s strengths and limits

• Self-confidence; a sound sense of one’s self-worth and capabilities

II. Self-Management

• Emotional self-control: Keeping disruptive emotions and impulses under control

• Transparency: Displaying honesty and integrity; trustworthiness

• Adaptability: Flexibility in adapting to changing situations or overcoming obstacles

• Achievement: The drive to improve performance to meet inner standards of excellence

• Initiative: Readiness to act and seize opportunities

• Optimism: Seeing the upside in events

III. Social Awareness

• Empathy: Sensing others’ emotions, understanding their perspective, and taking active interest in their concerns

• Organizational awareness: Reading the currents, decision networks, and politics at the organizational level

• Service: Recognizing and meeting follower, client, or customer needs

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