(Sample Material) UPSC IAS Mains GS Online Coaching : Paper 2 - "Government Policies & Interventions For Development"

Sample Material of Our IAS Mains GS Online Coaching Programme

Subject: General Studies (Paper 2 - Governance, Constitution, Polity, Social Justice and International relations)

Topic: Government Policies & Interventions For Development



The need for a national policy on the voluntary sector has been debated in public circles. for close to 20 years. The matter seemed to have been sealed with the Union cabinet approving a policy on May 17, 2007. “Creating an environment for the Voluntary Organisations (VOs) in order to stimulate their effectiveness,” is among its stated aims.

The Policy has six parts:

(a) Preamble
(b) Scope of the Policy
(c) Objectives of the Policy
(d) Establishing an Enabling Environment
(e) Partnership in Development
(f) Strengthening the Voluntary Sector


In the Policy, voluntary organizations (VOs) mean to include organizations engaged in-public service, based on ethical, cultural, social, economic, political, religious, spiritual, philanthropic or scientific & technological considerations. VOs include formal as.well as informal groups, such as: community-based organizations (CBOs); non-governmental development organizations (NGDOs); charitable organizations; support organizationsj networks or federations of such organisations; as well as professional membership associations.

To be covered under the Policy, VOs should broadly have the following characteristics:
• They are private, i:e., separate from Government
• They do not return profits generated to their owners or directors
• They are self-governing, i.e., not controlled by Government
• They are registered organizations or informal groups, with defined aims and objectives.


1. The specific objectives of the policy are listed below:
2. To create an enabling environment for VOs that stimulates their enterprise and effectiveness, and safeguards their autonomy;
3. To enable VOs to legitimately mobilize necessary financial resources from India and abroad;
4. To identify systems by which the Government may work together with VOs. on the basis of the principles of mutual trust and respect, and with shared responsibility; and,
5. To encourage VOs to adopt transparent and accountable systems of governance and management.

In the part ‘Establishing Enabling Environment’ it will examine the feasibility of enacting a. simple and liberal central’ law to register societies, trusts and non-profit companies. Under ‘Partnership in Development’, three instruments of partnership between the Government and the voluntary sector have been recognized and elaborated upon. In the part ‘Strengthening the Voluntary Sector’, there is a commitment to encourage independent philanthropic institutions to provide financial assistance to deserving VOs.


The Government ‘of: India recognizes the need to minimize large-scale displacement to the extent possible” and where displacement is inevitable, the need to handle with utmost care and forethought issues relating to resettlement and rehabilitation of project affected families. Accordingly, the Department of Land Resources, Ministry of Rural Development has formulated a National’ Policy on Resettlement and Rehabilitation for Project Affected Families in 2003. The department had replaced-the Resettlement and Rehabilitation policy of 2003 by a new National Policy on Rehabilitation and Resettlement in 2007.

The policy aims at striking a balance between the need for land for developmental activities and, at the same time, protecting the interests of the land owners, tenants, the landless, the agricultural and non-agricultural labourers, artisans, and others whose livelihood depends on the land involved. It recommends that only the minimum necessary area of land commensurate with the purpose of the project should be taken and the use of agricultural land for non-agricultural purposes should be kept to the minimum. Also, multi-crop land should be avoided and irrigated land use should be kept to the minimum for such purposes. Projects may preferably be set up on wastelands or un-irrigated lands.


• To minimize displacement and to promote,’ as far as possible, non-displacing or least-displacing alternatives;
• To ensure adequate rehabilitation package and expeditious implementation of the rehabilitation process with the active participation of the affected families;
• To ensure that special care is. taken for protecting the rights of the weaker sections of society, especially members of the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes, and to create .obligations on the State for their treatment with concern and sensitivity;
• To provide a better standard of living, making concerted” efforts for providing sustainable income to the affected families;
• To integrate rehabilitation concerns into the development planning and implementation process; and
• Where displacement is on account of land acquisition, to facilitate harmonious relationship between the requiring body and affected families through mutual” cooperation.

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