(Sample Material) UPSC IAS Mains GS Online Coaching : Paper 4 - "Probity In Governance (Part-2)"

Sample Material of Our IAS Mains GS Online Coaching Programme

Subject: General Studies (Paper 4 - Ethics, Integrity, and Aptitude)

Topic: Probity In Governance (Part-2)


Corruption and its challenges

Corruption has become an acceptable term in the Indian society. Though, there were recent protests held by a section of society and supported by large masses. But then there was no outcome of the whole movement. It raises various questions whose answers are hard to find. Corruption has so widely engulfed all the sections of society that it seems an uphill task to root it out from the country. The most shocking part of the widespread corruption in India is the fact that it is not anymore within the parameters of how Transparency International defines corruption, it is no longer limited to politicians or the public senants. it has become very common amongst almost every section of the society at every level. It is not only prevalent amongst rich who are greedy in spite of possessing enough but also prevalent amongst poor. The fact is that large number of Indians are now involved in corrupt practices in one way or the other, either due to greed or due to so called compulsion. People have gone even to the extent of adulteration of food-stuff such as milk, ghee, spices and also lifesaving medicines. It has to be kept in mind that corruption is not the disease. It is just a presenting symptom of the diseased society.

What is corruption?

As per the Transparency International (TI): Corruption is operationally defined as the misuse of entrusted power for private gain or the use of public office for private gain. In other words, use of official position, rank or status by an office bearer for his/ her own personal benefit. Therefore the corrupt behaviour would include, bribery, fraud, stealing the public resources, partiality/ favouritism, seizure of public assets for private use, etc.

Transparency International (TI) further differentiates between “according to rule” corruption and “against the rule” corruption. Facilitation payments, where a bribe is paid to receive preferential treatment for something that the bribe receiver is required to do by law, constitute the former. The latter, on the other hand, is a bribe paid to obtain service.

Causes of corruption in India

• Lack of effective management and organisation: Due to mismanagement and misorganisation, there is a weak control on various departments and their working. This leads to lack of coordination and control among departments and levels of organisation. This uncontrolled and unsupervised administration gives rise to corruption on large scale. Besides, appointment of inefficient and incapable managers and executives on various levels of hierarchy also leads to mismanagement and misorganisation. The only cause of mis wrong appointment is corruption. Hence, corruption breeds corruption.
• Lack of economical stability: Economical crisis and price hike are major causes of corruption. Economical crisis leads to unemployment and change in standard of living. It develops a feeling of insecurity in the minds of affected people. Most of the people do not have patience and courage to face this situation. In order to regain their employment and to maintain standard of living and status.this affected people engage themselves in illegal and immoral activities. They do not want to work hard again for achieving the same position and post. They use various illegal short cuts for achieving them.
• Lack of effective leadership: Good leaders can only lead people towards growth, development and progress. They play significant role in eradication of social evils. In India, there is tremendous shortage of good leaders. Leaders convey message of citizens to the administration and government.They lead the people against corruption and social evils. A country cannot survive without honest and sincere leaders. There is urgent need of leaders like Mahatma Gandhiji. We need more Anna Hazares and Medha patkars.
• Lack of support: There are few good leaders in India. They strive hard to eradicate corruption from the society But due to lack of support and cooperation from people, the voice and efforts of these great leaders arc often suppressed. People of India are more concerned with their lite than ihe development and protection of their country against social evils. Many citizens have accepted corruption as a part ol their life. They think, it is useless and waste of time, to support leaders against corruption.

Why Corruption

Why do officials misuse public office for private gain mmt steal public money? Why does a common man get involved u the corruption and unethical activity? Although there are man; causes of corruption but based upon several research, sunev and studies, the following are most common causes in most of the governments and societies:

• Lack of rules, regulations, transparency and accountability in public sectors.
• Lack of control, supervision and auditing.
• Lack of articulated Code of Conduct for public servants and politicians.
• Attitudes or circumstances (hat make average people disregard the law.
• The change in the value system and ethical qualities of people. The moral and ethics have declined and most people give more importance to money than excellence.
• Bribe may provide a convenient means of getting work done or avoid any punishment.
• Bad incentives, such as any employee not earning enough to live on; so he supplements his income with bribes.
• Tolerance of people towards corruption.
• Absence of strong public forum or civil society to oppose corruption.

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