(Sample Material) UPSC IAS Mains GS Online Coaching : Paper 4 - "Public/Civil Service Values and Ethics in Public Administration (Part-1)"

Sample Material of Our IAS Mains GS Online Coaching Programme

Subject: General Studies (Paper 4 - Ethics, Integrity, and Aptitude)

Topic: Public/Civil Service Values and Ethics in Public Administration (Part-1)

Public/Civil Service Values and Ethics in Public Administration (Part-1)

Meaning of Public Services

The term ‘Public Services’ is generally used to denote the civil services constituted by the government to translate all plans and programmes into implement-able actions. Public services forms the arms of the executive branch of the government- It is concerned with law enforcing functions. In the executive branch of the government, there are two parts, the ministers and civil servants. The civil servants carry out the orders of the ministers and advise them in policy formulation.

According to E.N. Gladden, “Civil/Public service is the name of an important government institution comprising the staff of central administration of the state. It stands for a spirit essential to the success of modem democracy, an Ideal of vocation in public officials who devote their lives to the service of the community”. Public services is a blend of certain features viz. expertise, vitality and leadership. Which enables the public services to function in professional and efficient manner. It provides stability and continuity to the system of government.

Civil Services in India

The Macaulay Committee which gave India its first modern civil service in 1854 recommended that the patronage based system of me East India Company should be replaced by a permanent civil service based on a merit based system dirough competitive entry examinations. The Macaulay Report made it clear that only the best and the brightest would work for the Indian Civil Service (ICS). The Report stated, “It is undoubtedly desirable Uiat the civil servants of the Company should have received the best, the most finished education that the native country affords”.

After 1855, recruitment to the ICS came to be based totally on merit. Th e report of the Civil Service Commissioners pointed out that of those who entered the ICS between 1855 and 1878, more than two-thirds were university men, equipped with a liberal and finished education. Initially, the ICS sought its recruits from Oxford and Cambridge. It was thus an elite service. Subsequently, it opened its doors to Indians and from 1922 onwards the Indian Civil Service Examination began to be held in India.

Structure of Civil Services

While structuring the civil services alter Independence, the Indian political leaders chose to retain elements of the British structure of a unified administrative system such as an open-entry system based on academic achievements, elaborate training arrangements, permanency of tenure, important posts at Union, State and district levels reserved for the civil service, a regular graduated scale of pay with pension and other benefits and a system of promotions and transfers based predominantly on seniority. Hie civil services in India can be grouped into 3 broad catcgorics.i.e. Services whose members serve both the Union and the State Government are termed as All India Services. Services whose members serve only the Union Government are termed Central Civil Servicts. Apart from these, the State Governments have their own group of services - Slate Civil Serviees. The posts in the Union and the State Governments arc hierarchically arranged into four Groups - Group A to Group D.

Article 312 of the Constitution empowers Parliament to create the All India Serviccs(AIS) on the fulfilment of certain conditions. Presently, IAS, IPS & IFoS are ALL INDIA SERVICES. The key objectives of government in creating the AIS are:

• preserving national unity and integrity and uniform standards of administration
• neutrality and objectivity - non-political, secular and nonsectarian outlook
• competence, efficiency and professionalism - at entry by attracting the best and brightest and throughout the career
• integrity and
• idealism.

Relationship between the Government and Public Services

The art of governance and administration has been the integral feature of human society. For governance, there has always been a government, whatever be its form and for carrying out the objectives of the government, there has always been the public services. Public services have al v. ays been an important arm of the government for formulation, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of its programmes. Thus, the kind, and the character ol the public services would, no a doubt, depend on the type of the government and the nature and the scale of the tasks to be performed by it. As a consequence, whenever and wherever there is a change in the government, the public services also undergo a change to some extent.

It is very difficult for the government to be only concerned widi policy formulation whereas for the services to only ileal wiih ailmimstrauon of these formulated policies. Both in theory and practice, there is frequent crossing of boundaries, as a result a complimentary, mutual and inter-dependent relationship has developed between the two. The government sets the goals for public services, hence it is instrumental as a tool to achieve these goals. Public service has to cater to the needs of larger number of people and is engaged with the supply of varied services. It does not exist in a vacuum. It is the product of basic public policy, it operates under public scrutiny, it mirrors general social and economic conditions, and it has a continuous impact upon the general welfare. The government is dependent on the public services for the implementation of its programmes, widiout proper utilisation of public services, no policy/programme/rule can be made successful.

To Get Full Material Join General Studies - 4 Online Course

Click Here to Join Online Coaching for IAS Mains General Studies - I, II, III & IV (Combo)

Click Here to Buy IAS Mains General Studies Study Kit in Hard Copy

<<Go Back To Main Page