Cell Biology : Structure and function of cell wall (extracellular matrix
or ECM), cell membrane and cell organelles. Nucleus, nucleolus, nuclear pore
complex (NPC), chromosome and nucleosome. Mitosis, meiosis, molecular
control involving checkpoints in cell division cycle. Differentiation,
Genetics, Molecular Biology and Biotechnology : Laws of inheritance.
Concept of gene and allelomorph. Linkage, crossing over and gene mapping.
Structural and numerical changes in chromosomes and gene mutations. Sex
determination and differentiation. Structure and synthesis of nucleic acids
and proteins. Genetic code. Regulation of gene expression. Genetic
engineering and crop improvement. Protoplast, cell, tissue and organ
cultures. Somatic hybridization. Biofertilizers and biopesticides.
Biotechnology in agri-horticulture, medicine and industry.
Tissue Systems : Origin, development, structure and function of primary
and secondary tissues.
Plant Diversity and Systematics : Structure and function of plant forms
from evolutionary aspects (viruses to Angiosperms including fossils).
Principles of nomenclature, classification and identification of plants.
Modern approaches in plant taxonomy. Recent classification of living
organism into three groups (bacteria, archaea and eukarya).
Plant Physiology: Water relations. Mineral nutrition. Photosynthesis.
Respiration. Nitrogen metabolism. Enzymes and coenzymes. Dynamics of growth,
growth movements, growth substances, photomorphogenesis. Secondary
metabolites. Isotopes in biological studies. Physiology of flowering.
Methods of Reproduction and Seed Biology : Vegetative, asexual and sexual
methods of reproduction. Pollination and fertilization. Sexual
incompatibility. Development, structure, dormancy and germination of seed.
Plant Pathology : Diseases of rice, wheat, sugarcane, potato, mustard,
groundnut and cotton crops. Factors affecting infection (host factors,
pathogen factors, biotic factors like rhizosphere and phyllosphere
organisms). Chemical, biological and genetic methods of disease control
(including transgenic plants).
Plant and Environment : Biotic and abiotic components. Ecological
adaptation. Types of vegetational zones and forests of India. Deforestation,
afforestation, social forestry and plant introduction. Soil erosion,
wasteland, reclamation. Environmental pollution and its control (including
phytoremediation). Bioindicators. Global warming.
Biodiversity, Plant Genetic Resources: Methods of conservation of plant
genetic resources and its importance. Convention of Biological Diversity (CBD).
Endangered, threatened and endemic taxa. Role of cell/tissue culture in
propagation and enrichment of genetic diversity. Plants as sources of food,
fodder, forage, fibres, oils, drugs, wood and timber, paper, rubber,
beverages, spices, essential oils and resins, gums, dyes, insecticides,
pesticides and ornamentation. Biomass as a source of energy.
Origin of Life and Evolution: Basic concepts of origin of earth and origin
of life. Theories of organic evolution, molecular basis of evolution.