(The Gist of Kurukshetra) Biotechnological Interventions [APRIL-2018]
(The Gist of Kurukshetra) Biotechnological Interventions
Aquatic biotechnology has played a crucial role in promoting productivity, boosting efficiency and ensuring sustainability in aquaculture. The key aspects of culture have been optimized through biotechnological application including enhancement of growth rate and feed conversion efficiency, nutrition and product quality, stress modulation, vaccination, disease resistance, modern disease diagnostics and treatment, genetic selection, transgenesis, etc. The genomics and proteomics have the potential to impart production and management of fish genetic resources. Nana-technology has opened a new horizon for the analysis of biomolecules, development of non-viral vectors for gene therapy as transport vehicle for DNA, protein or cells, targeted drug delivery, clinical diagnosis, disease therapeutics etc.
Biotechnological interventions have shown great promises in applying the tools of bioremediation and probiotics in environmental management of effluents, toxicants and pathogens apart from its impact on induced breeding, sea ranching etc.
Mariculture using biotechnological interventions has immense potential being a lucrative sector worldwide. The potential area of ' biotechnology in mariculture include the use of synthetic hormone (GnRH) in induced breeding, transgenic fish, chromosome engineering, cryopreservation and gene banking, marker assisted genetic improvement and health management. The technical development in transgenesis has expanded the possibilities for producing either sterile fish or those whose reproductive activity can be specifically turned on or off using inducible promoters apart from trait specific gene transfer. Chromosome engineering techniques are important in the improvement of fish breeding as they provide a rapid approach for gonadal sterilization, sex control, and improvement of hybrid viability and cloning.
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