(GIST OF KURUKSHETRA) Fostering Water Management for Food Security
Fostering Water Management for Food Security
- The increasing pressure on natural resources, especially land and water, poses several challenges to the global food system and its sustainability. Water management will be one of the important factors to ensure water security and achieve the SDGs in the coming years.
Need for Water Management & Conservation
- With population growth, climate change, changing rainfall patterns and desertification, water management and protection have become global priorities.
- India is home to about 18% of the world’s population and has only 4% of its water resources. India is one of the most arid countries in the world.
- It is estimated that the country’s water demand will double the available supply by 2030, ultimately resulting in a loss of around 6% of the country’s GDP.
- With population growth, agriculture must produce nearly 50 percent more food, feed, and biofuels by 2050 than in 2012 to meet global demand and stay on the path to eradicating hunger.
- In order to close the gap in forecast supply and demand, it is necessary to convert agriculture from intensive farming to resource-efficient, climate-friendly agriculture.
India’s Water Conservation Strategies in Agriculture
The Indian government has taken several water conservation initiatives to get the maximum yield from the minimum amount of water.
Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayee Yojana (PMKSY)
- It is a centrally sponsored scheme launched in 2015, with an outlay of Rs 93,068 cr for 2021-26.
- The scheme offers an end-to-end solution for irrigation through source creation, distribution, management, field application and extension activities.
- It was formulated by amalgamating the following schemes-
- Accelerated Irrigation Benefit Programme (AIBP) – Ministry of Jal Shakti, Department of Water Resources, River Development and Ganga Rejuvenation.
- Integrated Watershed Management Programme (IWMP) – Department of Land Resources (DoLR), Ministry of Rural Development.
- On Farm Water Management (OFWM) – Department of Agriculture and Cooperation (DAC).
Per Drop More Crop (PDMC)
- PDMC was launched in 2015 as a component of PMKSY. From 2022-23 PDMC is being implemented under Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana (RKVY).
- PDMC focuses on micro-irrigation technologies like drip and sprinkler irrigation systems.
- Under this scheme, GoI provides subsidies to small and marginal farmers @ 55% of the indicative unit cost and @ 45% to other farmers.
Sahi Fasal Campaign
- The Sahi Fasal campaign is a component of the National Water Mission, launched in 2019 by the Ministry of Jal Shakti.
- The “Sahi Fasal” campaign was launched to nudge farmers in the water-stressed areas to grow crops which are not water intensive, but use water very efficiently, and are economically remunerative; are healthy and nutritious; suited to the agro-climatic-hydro characteristics of the area; and are environmentally friendly.
Bhartiya Prakratik Krishi Padhati (BPKP)
- Bharatiya Prakritik Krishi Paddhati (BPKP) is a sub-mission under the Paramparagat Krishi Vikas Yojana (PKVY), which falls within the umbrella of the National Mission on Sustainable Agriculture (NMSA).
- The scheme has a total outlay of Rs 4645.69 cr. for the period of 6 years (2019-20 to 2024-25).
- BPKP promotes natural farming – a chemical-free, traditional farming-based diversified farming system that integrates crops, trees and livestock with functional biodiversity.
- The scheme aims at minimising the cost of cultivation, recreation of soil ecosystem and ensuring environmental sustainability.
- Because water is a state matter, collaboration is needed to take steps to increase, conserve, and efficiently manage water resources in all states.
- Ecosystem services and incentives should be considered to promote efficient use of water resources.
- The global food system and its sustainability are facing several challenges due to increasing pressure on natural resources, especially land and water, while in the future the demand for food is set to grow manifold. Indeed, the sustainability of the food system in the future will require much more resource efficient production with prime focus in conservation and management of resources like water. In fact, water management will be one of the most significant factors in the years to come to ensure food security and achieve SDGs. The new India sees efficient water management as key to its future needs to emerge as the world leader.