(The Gist of Kurukshetra)
INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT IN SCHOOL EDUCATION
INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT IN SCHOOL
During the last two decades, a major emphasis has been given on improving
school environment by different educational programmes like Operation
Blackboard, District Primary Education Programme (DPEP), Sarva Shiksha
Abhiyan(SSA), Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan (RMSA), and Samagra Siksha, in
order to enhance regular participation of students and finally resulting in
improvement in their learning levels.
Recommendations made by RTE Act 2009 for school education:
RTE Act 2009,has recommended that each school should
be equipped with 'All weather building consisting of at least one classroom
for every teacher; barrier-free access; separate toilets for boys and girls;
safe drinking water facility to all children; playground; securing the
school building by boundary wall or fencing.
Increase in number of schools:
- SSA and RMSA during its decade long programme have sanctioned more
than 3.64 lakhs elementary and secondary schools, which has resulted in
significant increase in the number of schools in rural areas. The figures of
the 8th All India Education Survey reveal that (96.01 per cent) rural
population have access to primary stage education facilities within walking
distance of 1km; and 92.81 rural population have access to upper primary
stage education facilities within a distance of 3 kms. SSA has a provision
of residential facilities in sparsely populated or hilly and densely
forested areas with difficult geographical terrains.
- Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalaya (KGBV) are residential upper
primary schools set up in educationally backward blocks for girls from SC,ST,
OBC and Minority communities. 3609 KGBVs have been sanctioned by Government
- Girls' hostel for students of secondary and higher secondary
schools: This is also a Centrally Sponsored Scheme that has been
implemented since 2009-10 to set up a 100-bed girls' hostel in each of the
3,479 Educationally Backward Blocks (EBBs) of the country in an effort to
ensure that girls are retained at the secondary level of education. 2,483
Girls' Hostel are sanctioned in rural areas to improve access and retain the
girls in Secondary and Higher Secondary classes (X XII) so that the girls
get the opportunity to continue with their studies irrespective of distance
to schools and other socio-economic factors.
- School Building and classrooms: There are 98 per cent
schools in rural areas, having their buildings. Since the inception of the
erstwhile Centrally Sponsored Scheme, SSA and RMSA 18.40 lakh classrooms has
been constructed as a result the student classroom ratio (SCR) reduced
- Drinking Water: Investment for enhancement in facilities
was not limited to opening of new schools alone. The school infrastructure
(physical facilities in the school) has also augmented substantially with
financial and technical support provided from SSA and RMSA. As per UDISE
2016-17, there are 97 per cent schools in rural areas equipped with drinking
water facility. Many states have already achieved universal availability of
drinking water facility with 100 per cent in schools.
- Separate Toilet for Boys and Girls: Department of School
Education and Literacy launched Swachh Vidyalaya Initiative with an
objective to provide separate toilets for girls and boys in all government
schools within the timeline of 15th August, 2015. Under this initiative
4,17,796 (2.26 lakh boys' and 1.91 lakh girls toilets) toilet blocks were
constructed or made functional in 2,61,400 schools within the given
timeline. This included schools in the most difficult to remote areas in the
country or areas facing Left Wing Extremism (LWE). The Initiative was made
successful in partnership with all State Governments, 64 Central Public
Sector Undertakings, and 11 Private Corporates. With this, about 13.77 crore
children in 11.21 lakh government schools all over the country now have
access to toilet facilities.
- Ramp and CWSN Toilet: One of the major objectives of all
education programmes that have been implemented at present is to develop an
inclusive education system by providing access to children with
disabilities. Provisioning of ramp and CWSN toilet facility are two major
interventions in this regard. It has been found in DISE 2016-17 that around
64 per cent schools are having ramp and 23 percent schools having CWSN
toilet facility. The proportion of schools without ramp facility is much
higher in case of secondary and higher secondary level though there has been
considerable decline of such schools during the last TWO years of all
- Library: The RTE Act and RMSA specifies that the Library
will be an essential component of the school, providing not only resource
for learning, but also for strengthening the idea of reading for pleasure,
among the students. The UDISE 2016-17 data indicates that there has been an
increase in the facilities from 2010 after the implementation of RTE Act and
RMSA. In rural areas the percentage of schools with library has been
increased from 55 per cent in 2009-10 to 82 per cent in 2016-17.
- Information and Communication Technology (ICT): Information
and Communication Technology (ICT) is being used in classrooms to improve
learning outcomes worldwide. ICT@ schools was a scheme launched in 2004 by
MHRD and revised in 2010 to provide opportunities to secondary and senior
secondary students to mainly build their capacity on ICT skills and make
them learn through computer aided learning process.
- Computer Aided Learning (CAL): Under SSA the CAL is
primarily introduced in rural government upper primary schools covering the
classes VI to VIII to attract and retain children and also in the process,
enhance the quality of learning. The main objective of the CAL programme is
to attract the rural children, retain them in the schools and to improve the
quality of the education through animated multimedia based educational
- Electricity: Electricity is a lasting need for education.
Particularly in rural areas within a few years, students will be using
digital devices to access information needed for studies, instead of using
traditional textbooks. Computers and smart classrooms in rural areas have
changed the need for electricity in schools. Although more than80 percent of
secondary and higher secondary schools in the rural areas are equipped with
electricity facility, large number of primary schools are still devoid of
electricity, despite having electricity in villages.
- Playground: RTE Act 2009 gives emphasis on playground in
schools as playing puts enormous positive impact on children in their
learning and overall physical development. The situation regarding
availability of playground in schools is far from satisfactory even in rural
areas. There are 59 per cent schools having playground within it. Lack of
availability of playground hampers engagement of children in different games
and physical activities making schooling monotonous and unattractive. The
situation is slightly better in case of upper primary, secondary and higher
- Boundary Wall: It is also noteworthy that although most of
the schools are running in a building but many of these schools are found
without any boundary wall. The analysis of U-DISE data indicates that a 47
per cent of schools in rural areas do not have boundary wail which is very
important for the safety of children.
- Science Laboratory for Secondary and Higher Secondary schools:
Science is different from any other subject. It is believed that
laboratory teaching and experiments that are being conducted help encourage
deep understanding in children. Children are able to retain knowledge for
longer when they see the experiments being performed in front of them. Under
RMSA, integrated science labs has been sanctioned to the Secondary- Schools.
The chart below shows the availability of the labs in rural areas.
- To improve the quality of the programme, Government of India, in
2018-19, has decided to treat school education holistically without
segmentation from Pre-Primary' to Class 12.
- Samagra Shiksha - an overarching programme for the school
education sector extending from pre-school to class 12. It subsumes the
three Schemes of Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA), Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha
Abhiyan (RMSA) and Teacher Education (TE).
- With the introduction of Samagra Siksha, the focus is on improving
quality and learning outcomes in school education, also to improve retention
- The main emphasis of the programme is on improving the education
infrastructure and to provide quality education.
- A good school infrastructure with good spaces makes conducive
place for the children to study. Both SSA and RMSA have improved access to
elementary and secondary education in the country.
- In rural areas, the augmented school infrastructure has enhanced
enrolment of children in schools, especially girls and other disadvantaged
- It makes the learning more interesting and gets the children
motivated to attend school, this in turn improves the attendance and
interest of students in learning.