(GIST OF KURUKSHETRA) Maternal and Child Health
(GIST OF KURUKSHETRA) Maternal and Child Health
Maternal and Child Health
- Maternal malnutrition has been linked to an increased risk of maternal morbidity, premature birth, and newborns that are too small for their gestational age. Because of the negative repercussions for both women and their children, poor maternal nutrition during and throughout pregnancy is a major public health concern.
- Maternal malnutrition is still a global problem, with 24 percent of mothers in South Asia having a low BMI. Furthermore, anaemia affects 30 percent of reproductive-age women and 37 percent of pregnant women. Women’s overweight/obesity is a growing problem in most low-middle-income nations.
- According to National Nutrition Monitoring Bureau (NNMB) surveys in 10 Indian states, cereals and millets make up the majority of rural diets, with only approximately half of pregnant women getting enough protein and calories. The NNMB also revealed that most pregnant women’s iron, vitamin A and C, and folic acid consumption were less than half of what was advised.
In India, schemes for maternal and child health are mostly implemented through the flagship programmes of two ministries:
(1) The Ministry of Women and Child Development’s Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) programme provides micronutrient-fortified supplementary food and/or energy-dense take-home meals for pregnant women and mothers who are breast-feeding.
(2) The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare provides micronutrient supplements (IFA and Calcium), deworming tablets, weight gain monitoring, and nutrition advice to pregnant women as part of their antenatal care.
The Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS):
- ICDS scheme is one of a number of programs being implemented by the Government of India to enhance the nutritional status of children in the country. The programme is aimed towards children under the age of six, as well as pregnant and breastfeeding women. Take-Home Rations (THR) comprising micronutrient fortified blended food and/or energy dense food are supplied to children aged 0-6 years as well as pregnant and lactating women for consumption at home under the scheme.
- THR is provided with the goal of bridging the nutrition gap and improving infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices. Recommendations for energy, protein, and micronutrient requirements under ICDS, Supplementary Nutrition Programme (SNP) have been developed as per ICMR’s Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA). ICDS guidelines recommend that 50 percent RDA of the nine micronutrients (iron, calcium, folic acid, zinc and Vitamins A, B1, B2, B3 and C) should be included in THR.
Pradhan Mantri Matru Vandana Yojana (PMMVY)
- As a part of the National Food Security Act of 2013, the Maternity Benefit Program has been implemented in all regions of the country titled as Pradhan Mantri Matru Vandana Yojana (PMMVY). This scheme is covered under the ICDS umbrella. Special features of PMMVY are as follows:
- The beneficiary can only apply for the plan if the scheme eligibility standards are met within 730 days of the recipient’s last menstrual period (LMP). The Date of Pregnancy to be considered will be the LMP indicated in the MCP Card. In circumstances where the LMP date is not recorded in the MCP Card, such as when a beneficiary is submitting a claim for the third instalment under the plan, the claim must be presented within 460 days after the child’s birth date, beyond which no claim will be considered.
- After institutional delivery, the eligible beneficiaries would receive the remaining cash incentive as per approved norms towards the Maternity Benefit under Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY) by the Health Department on an annual basis. Pregnant Women and Lactating Mothers (PW&LM) shall receive a cash benefit of Rs. 5,000.
Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY)
- The National Rural Health Mission’s Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY) is a safe motherhood intervention. It is being adopted with the goal of lowering maternal and infant mortality by encouraging pregnant women to give birth in a hospital. The system is being implemented in all states and Union Territories (UTs), with a special focus on states that are under performing (LPS).
- In April 2005, the Janani Suraksha Yojana was started by amending the National Maternity Benefit Scheme (NMBS). Pregnant women who have reached the age of 19 and live in BPL households were eligible for financial support of Rs. 500 per birth up to two live births under the NMBS.
Pradhan Mantri Surakshit Matritva Abhiyan (PMSMA) – Janani-Shishu Suraksha Karyakaram (JSSK)
- The Janani-Shishu Suraksha Karyakaram (JSSK) was established with the goal of eliminating out-of-pocket payments for pregnant women and unwell newborns seeking treatment at a public health facility and was launched in June 2011.
- Every year, more than 1 crore pregnant women in both urban and rural areas use public health facilities, according to the project.
Rashtriya Bal Swasthya Karkyakram (RBSK)
- The Rashtriya Bal Swasthya Karyakram (RBSK) is a significant effort aimed at early detection and intervention for children aged newborn to 18 years, covering the four ‘D’s: Birth Defects, Deficiencies, Diseases, and Developmental Delays including Disability.
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