With the beginning of Green Revolution in Indian Agriculture in 1965-66, the fertilizer consumption got a huge momentum for sustaining the needs of burgeoning population. Consequently, we reached our targets and became self-sufficient in food grain production. However, the hazards of the intensive agricultural system are threatening as they drastically affect the ecological balance. Thus, we started thinking towards organic farming (OF) systems approach which was existing earlier (ancient time) in our society. The International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM) is an international organization which regulates the standards of and strengthens the organic movement globally in its full diversity by uniting and assisting more than 120 countries about the organic vision of the world. According to IFOAM,”Organic Agriculture is a production system that sustains the health of soils, ecosystems and people. It relies on ecological processes, biodiversity and cycles adapted to local conditions, rather than the use of inputs with adverse effects. Organic Agriculture combines tradition, innovation and science to benefit the shared environment and promote fair relationships and a good quality of life for all involved”. The essence of CF can be viewed as a suitable tool for promoting sustainability in agricultural production. Sustainable intensification is the process of supplying safe and nutritious food per unit of input, meeting our needs without compromising the ability of future generation to meet their own requirement or needs. Besides other benefits of UP, the system also guarantees the production of healthy foods. This is an important issue because according to the estimates of Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) in 2015, about 795 million people in the world are still undernourished, i.e., one in nine people. In India, under-nutrition and obesity (over-nutrition) are the major dual nutrition burdens at present. Recently, Indian Government has approved setting up of National Nutrition Mission (NNM) to overcome the nutrition related problems in the country. Growing concern of food and environmental issues in conventional agricultural system has led to the generation of eco-friendly approaches of farming system, commonly known as 0F system. This system includes:

a) Biological farming

b) Nature farming

c) Regenerative agriculture

d) Alternate agriculture

e) Permaculture

f) Low input sustainable agriculture


This production management system large promotes the use of organic materials or on-farm resources (Crop residues, animal manures, green manures, on and off farm wastes, growth regulators, biofertilizers, biopesticides, etc), and discourages the use of synthetic off farm inputs (fertilizers, fungicides, herbicides, pesticides, etc.) for maintaining the balance of nature without polluting soil, water, and air to obtain yield for a longer time. it integrates site specific agronomic, biological, and mechanical methods to foster cycling of resources and enhance agro-ecosystem health.


Exclusion of agrochemicals.

Maintenance of natural balance.

Production of nutritious food.

Enhancement of rural livelihood with profitable OF.

Conversation of soil and water resources.

Systematic raising of livestock along with crop production.

Conservation or enhancement of biodiversity and eco-system services.

Prevention of pollution.

Reduction in use of fossil fuel energy in agriculture.

Development of more sustainable and productive agriculture system.

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