(The Gist of Kurukshetra) TEACHER
EDUCATION: CHALLENGES AND PROBLEMS
TEACHER EDUCATION: CHALLENGES AND
Though many reforms are brought in teacher education particularly after
independence yet there are many more emerging issues and challenges that need
urgent attention for improving the quality and professional development of
teachers. Some of these are as follows:
- There are about 19000 teacher education institutions in the country, of
which 92 per cent are privately-owned and are largely in rural areas.
Various studies including J.S. Verma Commission shows that a large
proportion of teacher education colleges are not providing quality
education. If we see the result of Central Teacher Eligibility Test
conducted during 2011 for students who wanted to become primary and upper
primary teachers after acquiring the teacher education degree, it was less
than 1 per cent in the country. The situation has not improved much now as
the pass percentage of students is still less than 18% in the country.
- Most of the independent teacher education institutions are in rural
areas and running different courses in teacher education. In these
institutions, large numbers of posts are also lying vacant as quality
teachers are not prepared. There is also a general observation and complain
about these institutions that malpractices like fake attendance of students,
non-attending teachers, etc is prevalent in these institutions.
- NCTE ( 2014,2019) revised notifications have increased the duration of
teacher education programmes like B.Ed and M.Ed. running of admission of
students, equipment, physical facilities and qualified faculty etc.
- During transaction of curriculum of different courses of teacher
education programmes, it is observed that theory and practice, and content
and pedagogy of these programmes are not integrated. It has not resolved so
far and proves to be a great hurdle in preparing quality teachers and
- In our existing system, the teachers with general degree of B.Ed. have
been teaching from elementary to senior secondary stages. Even at some
places, they are teaching subjects which they have not studied at graduate
and postgraduate levels. It resulted into many complicated problems like
drop out, absenteeism and low achievement among the children.
- The centrally sponsored scheme of restructuring and re-organization of
teacher education launched in the nineties in the light of NPE, 1986 by
Government of India could not realize the objectives. The Programme on Mass
Orientation for School Teachers (PMOST) could not reach the field in its
real spirit. The institutions like DIETs, CTEs, IASEs, and SCERTs are not
functioning according to its role and functions.
- In case of higher education, there is no provision for pre-service
education. Teachers are working without professional degrees in teacher
education colleges and universities, in different institutions and
universities for preparing quality professional teachers, teacher educators,
curriculum developers, educational policy analysts, educational planners,
administrators, supervisors and researchers and school principals. There is
resentment at few places among stakeholders facing the problem.
- Both teacher education and school education are working in isolation and
does not have any relationship between the two in curriculum and its
translation. The pre-service teacher education curriculum does not reflect
the needs and demands of students and school teachers.
- There is no mechanism of Management Information System (MIS) on Teacher
Education. The data relating percentage of untrained teachers, unemployed
trained teachers, number of teacher educators and their specialisation,
curriculum and syllabus at different levels, frequency of curriculum
revision, innovative programmes.