(The Gist of Science Reporter) Around the World in Eight Ways  [FEB-2018]


(The Gist of Science Reporter) Around the World in Eight Ways

 [FEB-2018]


Around the World in Eight Ways

The developed countries are adopting some of these measures to bring down the pollution Ievels in their cities:

Improved public transport: Cheap and efficient public transport systems to bring down private vehicles.

Bicycle tracks: Countries like Germany are reviving cycle track and have an estimate of 500 km laid for this purpose. They also provide incentives for cycle users - like cheaper housing, freecycle space and free public transport system.

Total ban: In the Netherlands, it is reported that the government is opting to ban all petrol and diesel vehicles by 2025, and upgrade to electric and hydrogen cars.

Strict laws and regulations: In the US, the Clean Air Act and Environment Protection Agency take stringent action against violators (both industrial and vehicular emissions). Moreover, the amended bill allows citizens to sue anyone who is found to pollute the environment.

Better technology: Upgrading to fuel-efficient and technologically advanced vehicles to contribute to lesser emissions and cleaners environment.

Renewable resources: focus and alternative resources like wind, thermal and hydroelectric power to ensure lesser consumption of fossil fuels and lower emissions.

Odd – even pattern : Reducing number of vehicle on roads by adopting odd- even days to bring down pollution levels. Also free transport is provided on these days as compensation.

Carbon – off areas : Cities like Paris cordon – off historic sites and other zones as vehicle free areas. Here only bikes are allowed.

Graphics is a continually developing field with new invention happening almost everyday drones and 3D imaging are revolutionising the world of graphics like nothing else.

Computer Graphics is a dynamic and rapidly evolving field right from your desktop monitor to your video games to watching 3D movies Everything involved computer graphics much has happened in the field of Computer Graphics in the year 2017 let's take a look at some of these developments.

Ultra fast camera

First office the development in Technologies for self driving vehicle and drones a new ultra fast camera for drones and sir driving vehicle has been developed at the nanyang Technologies University Singapore. Assistant professor Chan shoushun from NTU's School of electrical and electronic Engineering has developed a new camera name Celex. He unveiled the prototype Celex in February 2017 at the international symposium on electronic imaging (EI 2017) Hell in the United States it received appreciation from the conference attendees.

The research into the sensor Technology started in 2000 note has received a funding of $500,000 from the ministry of education Tier 1 research Grand and the Singapore MIT Alliance for Research and Technology (SMART) proof - of - Concept grant.

The new camera is much faster than conventional video it only takes nano seconds to record the change in light intensity between scenes. The data format in which the images are saved is much smaller to the camera Does an instant analyse of the captured scenes the data format in which the images are safe is much smaller too. The camera Does an instant analyse of the captured scenes. Highlighting important object and details.

Normal optical cameras can see very far objects but the video free takes time to process. The new camera overcomes this drawback. The time required between the analyses and the processing of the image is very less. It also has a continuous tracking features. All this make it faster and upgrade safety tool for self driving vehicles. It helps drawn and other autonomous vehicle avoid collisions that can take place within a few seconds.

Optical cameras record up to 30 frames per second. However, the high speed video cameras used in Celex record up to 120 frames per second. The data generated by this cameras is in gigabytes, which is then processed buy a computer for self driving vehicles to view and analyse their environment.

3-D Holographic Displays

Next is the recent development of a new methodology for 3D holographic displays that hugely improve the image quality.

Holography was initially regarded as an analog Technology. Digital imaging and displays computing open new doors for holography. The potential application of digital three dimensional holograms are huge.

Different fields such as entertainment, art biomedical image visualisation engineering drawing Technology could benefit from the science of 3D Digital hologram. However the application remained Limited because of the constraints on Hologram generation Technology.

Recent research in the Physics department of the Korea advanced Institute of Science and Technology has managed to come up with a solution and developed a 3D holographic display the major problem with current holographic displays are restricted during Angel and size of 3D images this study done by aresearch team led by professor young Keun is expected to improve on both is limitation. The study was
published online in nature photonics on the 23rd January 2017.

3-D X-ray Imaging

Another development relates to the application of 3-D X-ray imaging to a microchip that makes the finest detail of a microchip visible.

A microchip (also referred to as an Integrated Circuit or a Chip) consists of wires and several transistors.

These transistors act like switches and are responsible for the flow of electricity in a microchip Instead of being activated with the use of an electricity signal.

Today microchips are found in almost all in electronics gadget there are smaller than our then our fingernails and are used to store information perform logical operation and can also be used as microchip implants because of its various uses it necessary for a microchip to meet UPTU its specifications. To analyse the chips performance we need to visualise its small internal parts transistors which cannot be
done normally as their size various in nanometres the wiring in most of the microchips is 45 nanometres wide while the transistors are 34 NM high. Due to its small size it is a challenge to check the chip in detail without destroying at least a small part of it

To overcome these disadvantages, researchers at the Paul scherrer Institute have come up with a new method that X-rays for the 3-D images of a layer in a microchip. uses The conversion of X-ray images to 3-D images is done using computer graphics. This is the first time a non-destructive method has been devised to visualise the internal parts of a chip. It is used to observe the wiring paths and transis ors of a microchip without destroying or deforming any partc it. The 3-D images formed after scanning with the X-rays a used
uo analyse the chip.

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