(GIST OF SCIENCE REPORTER) MCQs on Health
MCQs on Health
1. When is World Health Day celebrated?
a) 6 April
b) 7 April
c) 8 April
d) 9 April
2. What is the full form of NIN and when was it established?
a) National Institute of Nutraceuticals, 1919
b) Nutrition Institute of Nagacheri, 1920
c) National Institute of Nutrition, 1918
d) National Institute of Nagaland, 1918
3. A national campaign “Swasth Bharat Yatra” launched in 2018 by FSSAI was inspired by _________.
a) Lal Bahadur Shastri
b) Jawaharlal Nehru
c) Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose
d) Mahatma Gandhi
4. What are the three major pillars of the ‘Eat Right India’ Movement?
a) Eat Right, Eat Fully, and Eat Healthy
b) Eat Healthy, Eat Safe, and Eat Sustainably
c) Eat Safe, Eat Nutritious, and Eat Fully
d) Eat Nutritious, Eat Healthy, and Eat Safe
5. According to the Niti Aayog Health Index 2021, which state emerged as the top-ranking state in terms of overall health performance among larger states?
b) West Bengal
6. Which of the following government schemes was launched by India’s Prime Minister to combat malnutrition and stunting in children?
a) Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojana
b) Pradhan Mantri Swasthya Suraksha Yojana
c) POSHAN Abhiyaan
d) Pradhan Mantri Mudra Yojana
7. The Government of India launched a health initiative “SEHAT”. What does “SEHAT” stand for and when was it started?
a) Social Endeavour for Health and Telemedicine, 25 August 2015
b) Social Environment for Health and Telemedicine, 26 August 2015
c) Standard Endeavour for Health and Telemedicine, 26 August 2015
d) Social Endeavour for Health and Telemedicine, 20 August 2015
8. When is the Ayushman Bharat Diwas celebrated across the country every year?
a) 23 April
b) 23 March
c) 30 March
d) 30 April
9. What is the full form of “POSHAN” in Poshan Abhiyaan (National Nutrition Mission)?
a) Prime Minister’s Scheme for Healthy Nutrition
b) Prime Minister’s Scheme for Health and Nutrition
c) Prime Minister’s Overarching Scheme for Holistic Nutrition
d) Prime Minister’s Scheme for Holistic Nutrition
10. When did World Health Organisation declare India polio-free?
a) 27 March 2014
b) 27 April 2014
c) 23 March 2013
d) 27 May 2013
11. Which ministry had launched the Poshan Abhiyaan scheme in India?
a) Ministry of Health and Family Welfare
b) Ministry of Ayush
c) Ministry of Consumer Affairs, Food and Public Distribution (DCA)
d) Ministry of Women and Child Development
12. Mid-day Meal Scheme was first started by which state in India?
a) Uttar Pradesh
b) Tamil Nadu
d) Arunachal Pradesh
13. What are the major objectives of Ayushman Bharat Diwas?
a) Provide social security measures such as pensions, insurance, maternity benefits, housing
b) To improve the quality of the life of the people
c) Provide and promote affordable medical facilities in remote parts of the country.
d) Provide some financial assistance to needy Indian women in distress
14. Which of the following diseases has been eradicated from India?
a) Small pox
b) Chicken pox
15. Which government strategy aims to decrease all forms of malnutrition by the year 2030, with a focus on the most vulnerable and critical age groups?
a) National Health Strategy
b) National Vision Strategy
c) Nutrition National Strategy
d) National Nutrition Strategy
Courtesy: Science Reporter
gans e.g. systemic lupus erythematosus is characterised by inflammation of the skin, mucus membranes, joints, kidneys, brain, intestines, etc. Other examples include rheumatoid arthritis, SLE, scleroderma, Idiopathic inflammatory myositis, Sjogren’s syndrome, vasculitides, Coeliac disease, inflammatory bowel disease, and sarcoidosis.
Autoimmune diseases can develop in anyone with a genetic predisposition. It has been seen that a person with one autoimmune disorder has an increased risk of developing another by 30%. Certain factors that are known to increase the risk are as follows:
1. Genetic: Some autoimmune diseases run in families but it doesn’t mean that Autoimmune Diseases are hereditary. A person might inherit genes that predispose him to an autoimmune condition but she/he will only develop disease when exposed to a combination of triggers, of which the majority are unknown. We do see an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance of certain autoimmune diseases like type 1 diabetes mellitus, which is more common in whites, and systemic lupus erythematosus which tends to be more severe in African-Americans and Hispanic populations.
2. Environmental factors: Environmental factors can trigger autoimmunity in susceptible individuals. They account for up to 60-70% of all Autoimmune Diseases but only a few environmental factors have strong scientific back-up to support the fact that they can trigger autoimmunity like sunlight, certain chemicals (pesticides, pristane, mercury, silica, etc), cigarette smoking, air pollution and viral or bacterial infections. However, the mechanism by which environmental factors contribute to Autoimmune Diseases remains largely unknown. Exposure to some of the environmental factors triggers the immune system to produce antibodies. Some of these antibodies are not able to differentiate between the causal agent and normal cells of the body and they start damaging the body’s own normal tissues.
3. Gender: Most Autoimmune Diseases occur more frequently in women in their child-bearing years than men. Women are genetically predisposed to Autoimmune Diseases because of their sex hormones and the X chromosome. Genes representing immunity in an individual are located on the X chromosomes and women have double X chromosomes.
4. Smoking: It is a proven risk factor for the development of rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, primary biliary cirrhosis, etc. Smoking also affects the response to treatment and the outcome of Autoimmune Diseases. Smoking is known to modulate the immune system through many mechanisms, including the induction of the inflammatory response, immune suppression, alteration of cytokine balance, induction of apoptosis, and DNA damage that results in the formation of anti-DNA antibodies.
5. Obesity: The relationship between obesity, adipokines (compounds secreted by the fat tissue), and immune-related conditions like rheumatoid arthritis, type-1 diabetes, psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, multiple sclerosis and Hashimoto thyroiditis has been known.
6. Vitamin D deficiency: Vitamin D is known to modulate immune responses. Its deficiency is found to be associated with an increased risk of loss of immune tolerance.
7. Stress: A few studies have proven the link between stress and autoimmunity.
- There are a few general features that are generally seen during an ongoing immune inflammation like fever, malaise, fatigue, arthralgia. Specific manifestations depend on the type of organ involvement. It is important to remember that the majority of autoimmune diseases involve many organs, particularly connective tissue diseases (SLE, Scleroderma, RA, Sjogren’s syndrome, inflammatory myositis), vasculitis, etc.
- The most common autoimmune rheumatological disease is rheumatoid arthritis which predominantly involves small joints of hands and feet with significant early morning stiffness of more than 30 minutes. If left untreated it results in deformity, disability, and death.
- An autoimmune disease also increases the risk of comorbidities like cancer, stroke, mental illnesses, infections and risk of early mortality (shortened life span).
- There is no single specific test to diagnose Autoimmune Diseases and the symptoms can be confusing. That’s because many autoimmune diseases have similar symptoms. Quite often the patient visits different medical specialities and doctors to get a diagnosis. Doctors often have a hard time diagnosing autoimmune diseases.
- Investigations in a patient with the autoimmune disease include basic and specialised blood tests, urine tests, and radiological investigations depending on the type of autoimmune disease and its extent.
In most cases, the goal of treatment is to suppress (slow down) the patient’s aberrant immune system. The choice of treatment of Autoimmune Diseases depends on multiple factors:
1. Type of disease
2. Extent of organ involvement and
3. Other associated medical illnesses.
- Besides, the age of the patient, marital status and socioeconomic status also play a significant role in decision making. Depending on the type of Autoimmune Diseases, various classes of drugs e.g., immunosuppressive drugs (drugs that suppress immunity) or disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs with or without glucocorticoid are chosen.
- Treatment is usually lifelong. Autoimmune Diseases are treatable conditions but require specialised multidisciplinary care. Long-term follow up is warranted. Many AID related complications can be prevented or treated when the disease is diagnosed early enough.
Can Autoimmune Diseases be Prevented?
Prevention of a disease is possible only if the precise causative factors of the disease are known. Therefore, it may not be possible to prevent autoimmune diseases. But experts recommend the following to possibly decrease chances of Autoimmune Diseases:
1. No smoking
2. Regular exercise
3. Consumption of a healthy diet.
4. Explore food intolerances; avoid consuming foods that can cause issues with digestion and increase the chance of a flare-up of an existing autoimmune condition.
5. Limit processed foods in the diet
6. Manage the stress level
7. Avoid toxins
8. Have a good sleep
Courtesy: Science Reporter