Gist of The Hindu : JUNE 2024

Gist of The Hindu: JUNE- 2024

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Controller General of Accounts 

  • The government’s fiscal deficit for 2023-24 stood at 5.63 per cent of the GDP, marginally better than the 5.8 per cent estimated in the Union Budget, according to data released by the Controller General of Accounts (CGA) recently.

About Controller General of Accounts (CGA): 

  • CGA, in the Department of Expenditure, Ministry of Finance, is the Principal Accounting Adviser to the Government of India.

  • CGA is responsible for establishing and managing a technically sound Management Accounting System and preparation & submission of the accounts of the Union Government. 

  • CGA is also responsible for exchequer control and internal audits for the central government.

  • The office of CGA was established in October 1975 to administer matters pertaining to the departmentalisation of the accounts of the Union. 


  • The Office of CGA prepares monthly and annual analysis of expenditure, revenues, borrowings, and various fiscal indicators for the Union Government. 

  • It further formulates policies relating to general principles, forms, and procedures of accounting for the Central and State Governments.

  • It administers the process of payments, receipts, and accounting in the Central Civil Ministries/ Departments. 

  • Through itsInternal Audit Units in the respective Ministries/Departments, it is responsible for maintaining the requisite technical standards of accounting in the departmentalized accounting offices and for monitoring the financial performance and effectiveness of various programs, schemes, and activities of the civil ministries.

  • It also administers banking arrangements for the disbursements of Government expenditures and the collection of government receipts and interacts with the Central Bank for the reconciliation of the cash balancesof the Union Government.

Sunkoshi River

  • A river cleanup campaign that removed 24,575 kg of waste from the Sunkoshi River banks and waste hotspots was recently completed under the PLEASE (Plastic Free Rivers and Seas of South Asia) program.

About Sunkoshi River:

  • Sunkoshi, also known as the ‘river of gold’, is a river in Nepal that is part of the Koshi or Saptakoshi River system formed by the seven (sapta) rivers joining in east-central Nepal.

  • Course: River Sunkoshi’s water source is located in the Zhangzangbo Glacier in Tibet, which merges with River Saptkoshi, ultimately joining the Ganga in the Katihar district of Bihar in India, before finally draining into the ocean at the Bay of Bengal in Bangladesh. 

  • It is one of the longest and most popular rivers for rafting in Nepal and is known for its challenging rapids.

  • It forms the watershed for most of eastern Nepal.

Key Facts about Koshi River:

  • It is a transboundary river which flows through China, Nepal, and India.

  • It is a prominent tributary of the Ganges.

  • Course: Originating from the Tibetan Plateau, it crosses the Himalayas and flows through the Mahabharat range and Siwalik hills, reaching the plains of eastern Nepal and finally meeting the Ganges in Bihar, India.

  • The Kosi drains an area of 74,500, of which only 11,070 lie within Indian Territory.  The Koshi River system drains about 45% of Nepal.

  • The Kosi River valley is bounded by steep margins that disconnect it from the Yarlung Zangbo River to the north, the Mahananda River to the east, the Gandaki to the west, and the Ganga to the south.

Pampa Lake

  • A team from the Karnataka State Department of Archaeology Museums and Heritage has uncovered rock shelter paintings estimated to be around 2,500 years old near Pampa Lake in the Hampi World Heritage Area.

About Pampa Lake:

  • Pamba Lake/Pampa Sarovar is situated in Koppal district near Hampi in Karnataka.

  • It is located to the south of the Tungabhadra River.

  • It is one of the five sacred lakes known as Panch-Sarovarin Hindu mythology, which are namely, Man Sarovar, Bindu Sarovar, Narayan Sarovar, Pampa Sarovar and Pushkar Sarovar.

  • In Hindu mythology, Pampa Sarovar is regarded as the place where Pampa, a form of Shiva’s consort Parvati, performed penance to show her devotion to Shiva.

  • It is also one of the Sarovars that finds a mention in the Hindu epic, Ramayana as the place where Shabhari, a devotee of Lord Rama, waited for the arrival of Rama.

  • The lake is surrounded by hills and temples and filled with lotuses.

Key Facts about Tungabhadra River:

  • It is a major river in the south Indian peninsula.

  • It is a major tributary of the Krishna River.


  • It is formed by the union of two rivers, Tunga and Bhadra, hence the name. 

  • Both the Tunga and Bhadra Rivers originate on the eastern slopes of the Western Ghats.

  • The two rivers merge at Koodli in the Shimoga district of Karnataka, giving birth to the Tungabhadra River.

Exit poll

  • Recently, Congress refrained from participating in Lok Sabha Elections-related debates in exit polls 2024.

  About Exit poll:

What is an exit poll

  • An exit poll is a post-election survey that shows how many seats a political party will likely win.

  • It is not the same as the official election results.

  • When will Exit polls be released

  • They can be released by media houses only after the voting ends for an election.

Methods of conducting:

  • They are taken immediately after voters have cast their ballots.

Legal Regulations:

  • The exit polls are regulated by Section 126A of the Representation of the People Act, 1951.

  • This law stipulates that no person shall conduct or publish exit polls via print or electronic media, or disseminate the results in any manner, during a period specified by the Election Commission of India.

  • Any person who contravenes the provisions of the Section 126A shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to two years or with a fine or with both.

Interim Bail

  • Recently the Chief Minister of Delhi appeals for bail extension on medical grounds as the interim period ends on 1st of June.


  • The Supreme Court is likely to hear an application moved by the Chief Minister of Delhi seeking interim bail for a week on medical grounds in a money laundering case related to the alleged excise scam.

About Interim Bail:

  • An interim bail is a short-term temporary relief to individuals entangled in legal proceedings before the hearing for the grant of regular or anticipatory bail.

  • The period for interim bail can be extended, but if the accused individual does not pay the court to confirm or extend the interim bail, they will lose their freedom and may end up in jail or face a warrant.

Grounds for Granting Interim Bail:

  • In the Parminder Singh and Ors. v. The State of Punjab (November 02, 2001) case, the Delhi High Court listed certain scenarios where interim bail should be granted which are as follows:

  • No likelihood of the accused fleeing from justice,

  • No chance of tampering with the evidence,

  • A clear case for custodial interrogation is not made out,

  • The application for a grant of anticipatory bail cannot be heard at an early date.

Some common grounds:

  • In case the accused has a serious medical condition requiring urgent or specialized treatment.

  • After considering the humanitarian factors such as familial responsibilities, age, health of the family members.

  • If the investigation is taking an unreasonable amount of time despite his cooperation with authorities.

Colombo Process

  • India has become chair of the Colombo Process for the first time since its inception in 2003.

About Colombo Process:

  • It is a Regional Consultative Process and it provides an important platform for consultations on the management of overseas employment and contractual labour for countries of origin in Asia.

  • It serves as a forum for the exchange of best practices on overseas employment.


  • It comprises 12 Member States of Asia (countries of origin of migrant workers).

  • Members: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, China, Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Nepal, Pakistan, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Vietnam.

  • India has been a member of the Colombo Process since its inception in 2003.


  • Share experiences, lessons learned and best practices in labour migration management.

  • Consult on issues faced by migrants, countries of origin and countries of destination and propose practical solutions for the well-being of overseas workers.

  • Optimize development benefits from organized overseas employment and enhance dialogues with countries of destination.

  • Review and monitor the implementation of the recommendations and identify further steps of action.

World No-Tobacco Day, 2024

  • Recently, The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (GoI), organized an event today to observe World No Tobacco Day 2024.

About World No-Tobacco Day:


  • The Member States of the World Health Organization created World No Tobacco Day in 1987.

  • In 1988, a Resolution was passed, calling for the celebration of World No Tobacco Day, every year on 31 May.

  • The annual campaign is an opportunity to raise awareness on the harmful and deadly effects of tobacco use and second-hand smoke exposure and to discourage the use of tobacco in any form.

  • The theme: “Protecting Children from Tobacco Industry Interference”.

About tobacco cultivation:

  • Tobacco cultivation in India was introduced by the Portuguese in 1605.

Area and production:

  • In India tobacco is predominantly cultivated in Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Karnataka, UP and Bihar. Gujarat accounts for 45 per cent of the area (0.13 M ha) and 30 percent of production (0.16 M t). Productivity is also highest (1700 kg ha-1) in Gujarat followed by AP.

  • Types of tobacco:

  • Anand area of Gujarat grows wholly bidi tobacco. Nipani area of Karnataka grows bidi tobacco. North Bihar and Bengal area has both tabacum and rustica types used in the manufacture of hookah and to a limited extent chewing and snuff types. Madurai and Coimbatore area of Tamil Nadu grow cigars, filter, binder and chewing tobacco.

World Health Assembly

  • Recently at the 77th World Health Assembly, member states approved a draft resolution on improving organ transplantation availability, including human cells and tissues.


  • On 29 May 2024, Member States (with the initiation of Spain) approved a new resolution on increasing availability, ethical access and oversight of transplantation of human cells, tissues and organs.

About the draft resolution:

  • The draft urged member states to increase in line with the World Health Organization (WHO) Guiding Principles on Human Cell, Tissue and Organ Transplantation.

  • It emphasized on encouraging donation after the neurological determination of death and where appropriate, donation after the circulatory determination of death.

  • It also mentioned that insufficient access to transplantation therapies is one of the root causes of trafficking in persons for organ removal and trafficking in human organs, practices that undermine human rights and pose serious risks to public health.

  • The resolution urged the director-general to establish an expert committee under the Regulations for Expert Advisory Panels and Committees, to help the Secretariat in developing the proposed global strategy and its implementation.

  • The resolution tasked countries with developing a global strategy to be presented for adoption in 2026. It also encouraged the establishment of a World Donor Day to raise public awareness and donations.

About World Health Assembly:

  • It is the decision-making body of the World Health Organization.

  • It is attended by delegations from all WHO Member States and focuses on a specific health agenda prepared by the Executive Board.


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Courtesy: The Hindu