Gist of The Hindu: MAY 2023

Gist of The Hindu: MAY 2023

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Telecom Regulatory Authority of India

  • The Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) recently announced to change the rules regarding fake, promotional calls and SMS to customers.

About Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI):

  • It is a regulatory body set up by the Government of India under section 3 of the Telecom Regulatory Authority of India Act, 1997.
  • It is the regulator of the telecommunications sector in India.


  • It consists of a Chairperson and not more than two full-time members, and not more than two part-time members.
  • The chairperson and the members of TRAI are appointed by the Central Government, and the duration for which they can hold their office is three years or until they attain the age of 65 years, whichever is earlier.

Government Control over TRAI:

  • TRAI is not a completely independent telecom regulator.
  • Under section 25 of the Act, it has the power to issue directions which are binding on TRAI.
  • The TRAI is also funded by the Central Government. 


  • Making recommendations on various issues;
  • General administrative and regulatory functions;
  • Fixing tariffs and rates for telecom services; and
  • Any other functions entrusted by the Central Government.
  • The recommendations made by the TRAI are not binding on the Central Government.
  • Central Government has to mandatorily ask for recommendations from TRAI with respect to the need and timing of new service providers and the terms and conditions of the licence to be granted to the service provider.
  • TRAI also has the power to notify in the official gazette the rates at which telecommunication services are being provided in and outside India.
  • The TRAI Act was amended in 2000, establishing a Telecom Disputes Settlement and Appellate Tribunal (TDSAT).

Antiques repatriated to India

  • Minister of State for Science and Technology, recently announced that 231 stolen antiques have been repatriated to India in the last nine years.

What is an antiquity?

  • The Antiquities and Art Treasures Act, 1972, implemented on April 1, 1976, defined “antiquity” as “any coin, sculpture, painting, epigraph or other work of art or craftsmanship; any article, object or thing detached from a building or cave; any article, object or thing illustrative of science, art, crafts, literature, religion, customs, morals or politics in bygone ages; any article, object or thing of historical interest” that “has been in existence for not less than one hundred years.”
  • For “manuscript, record or other document which is of scientific, historical, literary or aesthetic value”, this duration is “not less than seventy-five years.”

What do Indian laws say?

  • In India, Item-67 of the Union List, Item-12 of the State List, and Item-40 of the Concurrent List of the Constitution deal with the country’s heritage.
  • Before Independence, an Antiquities (Export Control) Act had been passed in April 1947 to ensure that “no antiquity could be exported without license.” In 1958, The Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Sites and Remains Act was enacted.
  • Then in 1971, Parliament saw an uproar over the theft of a bronze idol from Chamba and some important sandstone idols from other places.
  • This, along with the UNESCO convention, prompted the government to enact The Antiquities and Art Treasures Act, 1972 (AATA), implemented from April 1, 1976.

IRIS-T Surface-Launched-Missile (SLM) system

  • European Union and NATO members Estonia and Latvia will soon begin negotiations with Germany’s Diehl Defence for the purchase of IRIS-T SLM air defence system.

About IRIS-T Surface-Launched-Missile (SLM) system:

  • It is the medium-range version of the IRIS-T SL air defense missile system designed and produced by the German company Diehl Defense.
  • The system provides comprehensive 360° protection against aircraft, helicopters, cruise missiles, and guided weapons.
  • It enables simultaneous engagement of multiple targets from very short to medium-range within extremely brief reaction times. 
  • It is suited for both mobile and stationary deployment. 


  • Each system comprises three vehicles: a missile launcher, a radar, and a fire-control radar, with integrated logistics and support.
  • It is equipped with a radar with a range of 250 kilometers (155 miles). 
  • The missiles, which use infrared imaging to identify targets, are said to have a range of 40 kilometers (25 miles) and a maximum altitude of 20 kilometers (12.4 miles).

National Green Hydrogen Mission

  • Union Minister of Ports, Shipping and Waterways recently said that as per the National Hydrogen Mission of the country, Green Hydrogen/Ammonia bunkers and refuelling facilities will be established in all major ports by 2035.

About National Green Hydrogen Mission:

  • It was approved by the Union Cabinet on 4 January 2022.
  • It aims to make India a Global Hub for the production, utilization and export of Green Hydrogen and its derivatives.

The mission outcomes projected by 2030 are:

  • Development of green hydrogen production capacity of at least 5 MMT (Million Metric Tonnes) per annum with an associated renewable energy capacity addition of about 125 GW in the country;
  • Over Rs. Eight lakh crore in total investments;
  • Creation of over Six lakh jobs;
  • Cumulative reduction in fossil fuel imports over Rs. One lakh crore;
  • Abatement of nearly 50 MMT of annual greenhouse gas emissions;

 Types of Hydrogen based on Extraction Methods:

  • Grey Hydrogen: It is produced via coal or lignite gasification (black or brown), or via a process called steam methane reformation (SMR) of natural gas or methane (grey). These tend to be mostly carbon-intensive processes.
  • Blue Hydrogen: It is produced via natural gas or coal gasification combined with carbon capture storage (CCS) or carbon capture use (CCU) technologies to reduce carbon emissions.
  • Green Hydrogen: It is produced using electrolysis of water with electricity generated by renewable energy. The carbon intensity ultimately depends on the carbon neutrality of the source of electricity (i.e., the more renewable energy there is in the electricity fuel mix, the “greener” the hydrogen produced).

What is Insomnia?

According to recent research, people who have insomnia are 69 per cent more likely to experience a heart attack than those who don’t during an average nine years of follow-up.

About Insomnia:

  • It is a common sleep disorder that can make it hard to fall asleep, hard to stay asleep or cause you to wake up too early and not be able to get back to sleep. 
  • The condition can be short-term (acute) or can last a long time (chronic). It may also come and go.
  • Acute insomnia lasts from 1 night to a few weeks. Insomnia is chronic when it happens at least 3 nights a week for 3 months or more.
  • It affects women more than men and older people more than younger ones.
  • Insomnia may play a role in the development of chronic diseases, such as: obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, depression.

Types of Insomnia:

  • Primary insomnia: This means your sleep problems aren’t linked to any other health condition or problem.
  • Secondary insomnia: This means you havetrouble sleeping because of a health condition (like asthma, depression, arthritis, cancer, or heartburn); pain; medication; or substance use (like alcohol).


  • Stress-related to big life events, like a job loss or change, the death of a loved one etc.
  • Things around you, like noise, light, or temperature
  • Changes to your sleep schedule like jet lag, a new shift at work, or bad habits you picked up when you had other sleep problems.

Vitamin K

  • Canadian researchers have recently identified how vitamin K helps prevent diabetes.

About Vitamin K:

  • It is a fat-soluble vitamin that comes in two forms.
  • The main type is called phylloquinone, found in green leafy vegetables like collard greens, kale, and spinach. 
  • The other type, menaquinones, are found in some animal foods and fermented foods. Menaquinones can also be produced by bacteria in the human body. 
  • Vitamin K helps to make various proteins that are needed for blood clotting and the building of bones.
  • Vitamin K is found throughout the body including the liver, brain, heart, pancreas, and bone.
  • It is broken down very quickly and excreted in urine or stool. Because of this, it rarely reaches toxic levels in the body even with high intakes, as may sometimes occur with other fat-soluble vitamins.


  • The Prime Minister of India recently participated in the third in-person Quad Leaders’ Summit in Hiroshima, Japan

Key highlights:

  • The Quad leaders unequivocally condemned terrorism and violent extremism in all its forms and manifestations including cross-border terrorism.
  • They also released the ORAN Security Report to support industry investment in open, interoperable and secure telecom platforms. Quad Investors’ Network has been launched as a private sector-led platform to facilitate investments in strategic technologies.

What is Quad?

  • Known as the ‘Quadrilateral Security Dialogue’ (QSD), the Quad is an informal strategic forum comprising four nations, namely -- United States of America (USA), India, Australia and Japan. One of the primary objectives of the Quad is to work for a free, open, prosperous and inclusive Indo-Pacific region.
  • The group met for the first time in 2007 on the sidelines of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (Asean). It is considered an alliance of maritime democracies, and the forum is maintained by meetings, semi-regular summits, information exchanges and military drills of all the member countries.

Formation of QUAD

  • Since its establishment in 2007, the representatives for the four-member nations have met periodically. Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe was the first to pitch the idea for the formation of Quad in 2007.
  • In fact, its origins can be traced back to the evolution of Exercise Malabar and the 2004 Tsunami when India conducted relief and rescue operations for itself and neighbouring countries and was later joined by the US, Japan and Australia. Therefore, China issued formal diplomatic protests to the members of the Quad.

Principles of Quad

  • The motive behind the Quad is to keep the strategic sea routes in the Indo-Pacific free of any military or political influence.
  • It is basically seen as a strategic grouping to reduce Chinese domination. The core objective of the Quad is to secure a rules-based global order, freedom of navigation and a liberal trading system. The coalition also aims to offer alternative debt financing for nations in the Indo-Pacific region.


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Courtesy: The Hindu