Gist of The Hindu : MAY 2024

Gist of The Hindu: APRIL- 2024

The Hindu Current Affairs Week-1  (Free Available)

The Hindu Current Affairs Week-2  (Only For The Subscribed Members)

The Hindu Current Affairs Week-3  (Only For The Subscribed Members)

The Hindu Current Affairs Week-4  (Only For The Subscribed Members)

Indelible ink used in elections

  • As the Lok Sabha elections is round the corner, the classic symbol of Indian polls is visible everywhere – a index finger marked by a purple-black indelible ink.

About Indelible ink:

  • It contains silver nitrate. It is a colourless compound which becomes visible when exposed to ultraviolet light, including sunlight. The higher silver nitrate’s concentration, the higher will be the ink’s quality.

  • For up to 72 hours after application it can remain resistant to soap, liquids, home-cleansing, detergents, etc.

  • This water-based ink also contains a solvent like alcohol to allow its faster drying. The precise protocol for making this ink including its chemical composition and the quantity of each constituent is, however, not known to many people.

  • The indelible ink was first manufactured at the Election Commission of India’s request by the government’s Council of Scientific & Industrial Research (CSIR). Mysore Paints & Varnish Ltd. has been licensed to manufacture the ink and has been in the business since 1962.

  • It is exported to more than 25 countries that include Canada, Ghana, Nigeria, Mongolia, Malaysia, Nepal, South Africa and the Maldives

  • The Representation of the People Act (RoPA) of 1951 mentions the ink.

  • Section 61 states that rules may be made under the Act “for the marking with indelible ink of the thumb or any other finger of every elector who applies for a ballot paper or ballot papers for the purpose of voting at a polling station before delivery of such paper or papers to him.”

Clouded Tiger Cat

  • A new species of tiger cat, the clouded tiger cat, discovered in Brazil, faces threats from deforestation and illegal hunting.

What are Tiger Cats?

  • Tiger, also known as the oncilla, cats are small spotted cats that quietly stalk Central and South America, perfectly adapted for clambering in trees and hunting small prey.

  • They are among the shyest and smallest wild cats in the Americas and much smaller than most domestic house cats. 

  • Until recently, they were split into two species: the northern tiger cat (Leopardus tigrinus), and the Atlantic Forest tiger cat(Leopardus guttulus).

  • The northern tiger cat is native to the savanna and shrublands of the Guiana Shield and central Brazil, while the Atlantic tiger cat lives further south in forested areas of central to southern Brazil, down through Paraguay and northeastern Argentina.

  • Researchers recently concluded that the family includes a third species: the clouded tiger cat (Leopardus pardinoides).

About Clouded Tiger Cat:

  • It is a new species of forest-dwelling tiger cat. Its scientific name is Leopardus pardinoides

  • Geographic Distribution: It is found in the cloud forests of the southern Central American and Andean Mountain chains, which stretch from Costa Rica through Panama, Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Argentina.


  • It is a long-tailed cat with short-round ears, weighing 2.27 kg.

  • It has a remarkably margay-looking head, which has a nice dense soft fur of a rich reddish/orangish/grayish-yellow background color adorned with irregularly shaped medium-large ‘cloudy’ rosettes that are strongly marked and often coalesce.

  • Distinctively, it has only one pair of mammae/teats.

Mount Ruang

  • Mount Ruang initiated its eruption recently, propelling an ash cloud upwards of a mile into the sky.

About Mount Ruang:

  • It is a stratovolcano located in Indonesia’s North Sulawesi province. Its summit stands 10,932 feet above sea level, with a caldera that is about two miles wide.

What is a Stratovolcano?

  • It is a tall, steep and cone-shaped type of volcano. Unlike flat shield volcanoes, they have higher peaks.

  • They are typically found above subduction zones, and they are often part of large volcanically active regions, such as the Ring of Fire that frames much of the Pacific Ocean. 

  • It comprises the largest percentage (~60%) of the Earth's individual volcanoes, and most are characterized by eruptions of andesite and dacite, lavas that are cooler and more viscous than basalt.

  • These more viscous lavas allow gas pressures to build up to high levels. Therefore, these volcanoes often suffer explosive eruptions.

  • They are usually about half-half lava and pyroclastic material and the layering of these products gives them their other common name of composite volcanoes.

  • At the peak, stratovolcanoes usually have a small crater. The crater may be filled with water or ice, or it may contain a volcanic dome during a period of relative inactivity.


  • The Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) is reported to be testing a prototype of its DURGA-2 (Directionally Unrestricted Ray Gun Array) system.

About DURGA-2:

  • It damages or destroys its target using focused energy by means of lasers, microwaves or particle beams.

  • Advantages: These weapons have several advantages over conventional munitions.

  • They transmit lethal force at the speed of light (about 300,000 kilometers per second).

  • Their beams are not affected by the constraining effects of gravity or atmospheric drag.

  • They are extremely precise. Fourth, their effects can be tailored by varying the type and intensity of energy delivered against targets.


  • The aerospace industry can transform the way wars will be fought.

  • This will enable us to produce cutting edge platforms, weapons, sensors, and networks essential to fight and win a future war.

  • Other countries which have this system: Russia, France, Germany, the United Kingdom, Israel, and China.

Ethylene oxide

  • The Centre for Food Safety in Hong Kong recalled Everest Fish Curry Masala from India alleging the presence of a pesticide called ethylene oxide at levels exceeding permissible limit.

About Ethylene oxide:

  • It is a flammable gas with a somewhat sweet odor. It dissolves easily in water. It appears as a clear colorless gas with an ethereal odor. It is a man-made chemical that is used primarily to make ethylene glycol.

  • Applications: A small amount (less than 1%) is used to control insects in some stored agricultural products and a very small amount is used in hospitals to sterilize medical equipment and supplies.

  • Health impacts: It mainly impacts human central nervous system depression and irritation of the eyes and mucous membranes. Chronic exposure to ethylene oxide in humans can cause irritation of the eyes, skin, nose, throat, and lungs, and damage to the brain and nervous system.

World Crafts Council International

  • The World Crafts Council International (WCCI) has picked Srinagar for mapping its craft clusters before its final nomination as the World Craft City (WCC) from India this year.

About World Crafts Council International:

  • It is a Kuwait-based organisation working on recognition and preservation of traditional crafts across the globe.

  • It was founded by Ms. Aileen Osborn Vanderbilt Webb, Ms. Margaret M. Patch, and Smt Kamaladevi Chattopadhyay at the 1st World Crafts Council General Assembly in New York on June 12, 1964.

  • Since its inception, the World Crafts Council AISBL has been affiliated with UNESCO under Consultative Status for many years. 

  • Objective: The main objective of the World Crafts Council AISBL is to strengthen the status of crafts in cultural and economic life.

  • Aim: It aims to promote fellowship among crafts persons by offering them encouragement, help and advice.

  • It fosters and assists cultural exchange through conferences, international visits, research study, lectures, workshops, exhibitions and other activities.

Salas y Gómez

  • Recently, scientists announced the discovery of 160 marine species after exploring the Salas y Gómez region.

About Salas y Gómez:

  • It is an underwater mountain chain in the Southeastern Pacific Ocean. It lies in a west-east orientation. Its western end intersects the East Pacific Rise inside the Chilean Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of the Easter Islands and its eastern end adjoins the western end of Nazca ridge.

  • Ecosystems in this region are isolated by the Atacama Trench, the Humboldt Current System, and an extreme oxygen minimum zone. 

  • Waters surrounding the Salas y Gómez and Nazca ridges are mostly located in areas beyond national jurisdiction (ABNJ), with smaller portions located in the national waters of Chile and Peru.

  • This region hosts unique biodiversity with some of the highest levels of marine endemism on Earth. It is one of the many global locations under consideration for being designated as high seas marine protected area upon the ratificiation of the UN High Seas Treaty.

Key facts about United Nations High Seas Treaty:

  • It is known as the ‘Paris Agreement for the Ocean’, and the treaty to deal with Biodiversity Beyond National Jurisdiction has been under discussion for several years.

  • The proposed treaty concerns the ocean existing beyond the Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ) that lie from the coast of a country to about 200 nautical miles into the sea (Countries have special rights for exploration till 200 nautical miles).

  • The treaty was to be negotiated under the United Nations Convention on Laws of the Sea (UNCLOS) of 1982.

Global Alliance for Incinerator Alternatives 

  • The Global Alliance for Incinerator Alternatives (GAIA) Asia Pacific has called on the ASEAN to take decisive action in response to plastic pollution.

About Global Alliance for Incinerator Alternatives (GAIA):

  • It is a worldwide alliance of more than 1,000 grassroots groups, non-governmental organizations and individuals. It aims to power a transition away from our current linear and extractive economy and towards a circular system that supports people’s right to a safe and healthy environment. 

  • It envisions a just, zero-waste world built on respect for ecological limits and community rights, where people are free from the burden of toxic pollution and resources are sustainably conserved, not burned or dumped.

  • This entails fighting pollution and building regenerative solutions in cities through local campaigns, shifts in policy and finance, research and communication initiatives, and movement building.

  • They work on four primary points of intervention: incineration, zero waste, plastic, and climate.

What is Incineration?

  • Incineration is the process of burning hazardous materials at temperatures high enough to destroy contaminants.

  • Incineration is conducted in an “incinerator,” which is a type of furnace designed for burning hazardous materials in a combustion chamber.

  • Many different types of hazardous materials can be treated by incineration, including soil, sludge, liquids and gases.

  • Although it destroys many kinds of harmful chemicals, such as solvents, PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) and pesticides, incineration does not destroy metals, such as lead and chromium.

  • Modern incinerators include air pollution control equipment (e.g., fabric filters, scrubbers and electrostatic precipitators) to remove fly ash and gaseous contaminants.


  • Recently, scientists discovered a hidden ocean which is 700 km below earth's Surface located within a mineral called ringwoodite.

About Ringwoodite:

  • It is a fascinating mineral that exists in the Earth’s transition zone. It has a unique crystal structure that allows it to absorb water and hydrogen, acting like a sponge. This mineral can hold a significant amount of water.

  • It is a rare type of mineral that forms from olivine under very high pressures and temperatures.

  • The weight of hundreds of kilometers of rock and very high temperatures above 1,000 degrees Celsius (1,832 Fahrenheit) break down water into its components.

  • When the minerals containing this water reach certain depths, they break down in a process called dehydration and release the water to form magmas.

  • Such "dehydration melting" is common in the shallow mantle and forms the source for magmas in many volcanoes.


This is Only Sample Material, To Get Full Materials Buy The Gist 1 Year Subscription - "Only PDF" Click Here

Click Here to Download More Free Sample Material 

<<<Go Back To Main Page

Courtesy: The Hindu