(GIST OF YOJANA) Central Assistance for Welfare of Scheduled Tribes
Central Assistance for Welfare of Scheduled Tribes
- The Government of India, through various schemes and policy measures, is working for the welfare of the backward communities including the STs. The State Governments also work in a similar fashion from their resources and most of the time in collaboration with the Central Government for the welfare of the backward communities.
- The Government presently makes the bulk of its contribution for ST welfare through Scheduled Tribe Component (STC) whereby many Ministries under Gol make fund provisions exclusively for tribal welfare.
Scheduled Tribe Component or Development Action Plan for STs (STC or DAPST):
- Before 2017-18, funds from the Central Government were being earmarked by the Ministries/Departments against their plan allocation under the broad strategy of the Tribal Sub-Plan (TSP) as per the criteria recommended by a Task force in 2010, constituted by the erstwhile Planning Commission.
- The earmarking of funds was differential and against the plan outlay of the Ministries/Departments. Non-Plan funds were kept outside the purview of the TSP. In the new Budgeting System, 2017-18, after the merger of Plan and non-Plan funds, TSP was renamed as ‘Development Action Plan for STs’ (DAPST), or Scheduled Tribe Component (STC). Around 41 Central Government Ministries/Departments were identified for earmarking of STC.
Some of the important Central Sector and Centrally Sponsored Schemes/Provisions for tribal welfare are:
1. Special Central Assistance to Tribal Sub-Plan or Tribal Sub-Scheme of States: Special Central Assistance to Tribal Sub-Plan, is given by the Central Government to States to support their efforts in bridging the gap between the tribal population and other social groups through human resource development, enhanced quality of life, enhanced opportunities and alleviation of poverty.
2. Grant-in-aid under Article 275(1): Grants-in-aid from the Union to certain States, charged on the Consolidated Fund of India, are provided to promote the welfare of the STs in that State or raise the level of administration of the Scheduled Tribes’ Areas to that of the administration of the remaining area of the State. Such grants are only additive to the State’s efforts and are given to plug critical gaps in governance.
3. Scholarship and Fellowship schemes: The Central Government has made provisions for scholarships to Scheduled Tribe students of the country which are available at various levels of education, viz. pre-manic education and post-matric education. Similarly, a scholarship scheme called Top Class Education.
- Special Fund for Protection of PVTG: Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTGs) are those tribal communities with a pre-agriculture level of technological expertise, a stagnant or declining population, an extremely low level of literacy, and a subsistence economy. Around 75 such PVTGs have been identified by the Government of India in 18 States and the priority is to accord protection and improvement in the social indicators like livelihood, health, nutrition, and education to improve their situation.
- For Education of Girl Child: There is a special emphasis by the Central Government to empower women and educate the Girl Child in recent years. To benefit tribals as well, funds were allocated for the schemes for strengthening ST girl child education in Jharkhand.
- National Scheduled Tribes Finance and Development Corporation: The Public Sector Undertaking under the Ministry of Tribal Affairs extends concessional loans to eligible ST persons for undertaking income generation activities or self-employment as per the norms.
The Government of India has taken up the challenge of educating the tribal population in mission mode. The Centre is giving much emphasis to the development of Eklavya Model Residential Schools (EMRS), for filling the gap in the education of tribal children.