(GIST OF YOJANA) Energy Transition in India
Energy Transition in India
For decades, the energy sector has relied primarily on fossil fuels like coal, oil, and natural gas to generate electricity and fuel its economic growth. However, this reliance has come at a significant cost, both environmentally and socially. The burning of fossil fuels releases greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, contributing to global warming and climate change. Additionally, the air pollution resulting from conventional energy sources has led to severe health implications for the population, affecting not only the quality of life but also the economy.
Need for energy transition
The G20 High-Level Principles to support Businesses in Building safety, security, resilience, and trust in the Digital economy can be summarised as under:
1. security and trust
A human-centric culture of security and trust in the digital economy that enables citizens and businesses to understand risk management can be developed by
- Promoting cyber hygiene and the development of market-led and industry-led standards based on the principles of openness, transparency, and consensus.
- encouraging businesses and supporting MSMEs to develop and implement good practices and risk management frameworks to maintain the integrity of global supply chains.
- Promoting a ‘security by design’ and phased risk management approach along with encryption measures for digital solutions and services, including emerging technologies and connected systems and their devices.
- Promoting resilience in connected sectors such as health, finance, manufacturing, and public services and utilities by taking suitable security measures.
- encouraging accessible and efficient grievance redressal mechanisms for businesses, MSMEs, and consumers that fall victim to malicious use of digital technologies.
2. capacity building
capacity building is an important aspect of advancing security across the multi-layered structure of the digital economy and should include
- collaborating with and encouraging relevant stakeholders, including international organisations, to prioritise and contribute to capacity building within their areas of expertise.
- exploring an interdisciplinary approach that includes strategy, governance, technology, regulatory and non-regulatory frameworks, culture, economics, incident response, and crisis management.
- Providing guidance and awareness to citizens, businesses including MSMEs, and the wider economy on how to stay safe and secure online in an inclusive and accessible manner.
- Promoting lifelong learning opportunities for all users of digital technologies.
- encouraging young people especially women and girls to consider a career in security of digital solutions and services through curricular or extracurricular programmes.
3. research and development
Advancing research and development enables building resilience by
- Promoting research in advanced and emerging technologies that can enhance protection against security threats.
- sharing best practices on how to tackle various security threats, including recommendations from international organisations.
- Facilitating research projects on topics such as the economic costs of security incidents and their impact on businesses and underrepresented communities.
Challenges and the Path ahead
- While India’s energy transition has been remarkable, it is not without challenges. one of the primary concerns is the intermittent nature of renewable energy sources like solar and wind. Balancing electricity supply and demand becomes complex due to fluctuations in generation. The adoption of advanced energy storage technologies, such as batteries and pumped hydro storage, is essential to store excess energy during peak generation periods and release it during low generation times.
Following challenges have been witnessed in the implementation of re schemes and programmes:
i. land: the availability of land for re projects has been one of the major challenges. The preparation of state renewable energy Plans, considering the land available, can address this issue.
ii. regulatory issues: To achieve the re installation targets, earnest action is needed from the state governments on the following aspects:
• compliance of renewable Purchase obligation (RPO)
• timely adoption of tariff by state electricity regulatory commissions (sercs)
• Avoiding levy of additional charges by the states
iii. transmission infrastructure: realistic transmission and re project planning coupled with regular monitoring and remedial actions are needed to achieve the targets.
Economic and environmental implications
- The transition to renewable sources of electricity generation carries numerous economic and environmental implications. on the economic front, the growth of the renewable energy sector would stimulate job creation, spur technological innovation, and attract foreign investment, as also described in the previous sections. Further, a decrease in fossil fuel imports would enhance energy security and reduce the vulnerability of the economy to global energy market fluctuations.
- Environmentally, the shift away from fossil fuels significantly reduces carbon emissions, mitigates air pollution, and safeguards public health. During CoP26 in glasgow, the Prime Minister of India, announced five nectar elements, the Panchamrit, to deal with this challenge of climate change.these elements of Panchamrit will help the country to make its contribution in dealing with the climate change emergency. the above discussions reflect that India’s commitment to renewable energy aligns with its international climate pledges and also enhances its reputation as a global leader in this aspect.
- India’s journey from conventional to renewable sources of electricity generation marks a monumental step towards a sustainable energy future. the government’s unwavering commitment to ambitious renewable energy targets, coupled with innovative policies and incentives, has set the stage for a greener energy landscape. The surging popularity of solar energy, the consistent growth of wind power, and the exploration of other renewable sources signify India’s determination to strike a balance between economic advancement and ecological well-being.
- As India navigates the complexities of grid integration, energy storage, and infrastructure development, collaboration between the public and private sectors will be crucial. International partnerships, technological advancements, and skilled workforce development will play pivotal roles in shaping the trajectory of the energy transition.