(GIST OF YOJANA) Good Governance:
Cornerstone to Development
Good Governance: Cornerstone to Development
The definition of good governance continues to evolve, the Tenth
Plan document had highlighted some manifestations of bad governance which
include poor management of economy, denial of basic needs, threat to life
and personal security, marginalization and exclusion, lack of sensitivity,
transparency and accountability in state machinery, delayed justice and
existence of voiceless poor with little opportunity for participating in
governance and deterioration of physical environment.
The United Nations has defined eight pillars of good governance
as- consensus oriented, accountable, transparent, responsible, equitable and
inclusive, effective and efficient, rule of law, and participatory.
Under the Sustainable Development goals also, Goal 16 can be
considered to be directly linked as it is dedicated towards improvement in
governance, inclusion, participation, rights and security.
Development Agenda lndia(@ 75
NITI Aayog has brought out a comprehensive document viz. "Strategy
for New India @75 spelling out the broad roadmap for the 75th year of
India's Independence. This comprehensive document, comprising 41 chapters
covering almost all sectors, spells out current status, binding constraints
and strategies to not only enable India to become a 4 trillion dollar
economy by 2022 but also lay a solid foundation for clean, inclusive,
sustained and sustainable growth for the next three decades. Of these, as
many as 7 chapters focus on governance, covering subjects such as balanced
regional development, legal, judicial and police reforms, transforming
aspirational districts, civil service reforms, city governance, optimizing
use of land resources, and data led governance. In the bound manner.
Anchored in NITI, the programme is aimed at transforming 115 most backward
districts with focused remaining chapters also, especially those relating to
social sectors, good governance remains the key for better service delivery
and more effective outcomes
In the area of education one of the key interventions in the field
of health and nutrition, education, agriculture and water management,
financial inclusion and skill development.
The ADP is a landmark initiative that aims reforms suggested is a
revamped governance system to improve monitoring and accountability. Thus,
Slates should develop and formulate robust mechanisms to enforce regulations
on teacher qualifications, teacher absenteeism and learning outcomes.
Further, learning outcomes should be regularly assessed by bodies
independent of the line ministries.
Another reform entails an electronic national educational registry
for tracking each child's learning outcomes and final exams through a unique
ID. This will not only assist in preparing a list of children who drop out
after elementary education, but will also enable focused attention to the
needs of children from socially deprived groups and those with physical or
In the health sector, the document recommends improved governance
in medical, nursing, dentistry and pharmacy education. It also suggests
revamping the AYUSH, nursing, dentistry and pharmacy councils along the
lines of the proposed National Medical Commission Bill, 2017. It is also
proposed to establish a Council for Allied Health Professionals to ensure
standardization of education and putting in place quality control mechanisms
for educational institutions, teaching methods, clinical protocols and
Aspirational Districts Programme
The Aspirational Districts Programme (ADP) was launched in January
2018 to transform the lives of people in the under- developed areas of the
country in a time to address governance issues by using a combination of
approaches: lifting levels of aspirations through a vision and district
plan, adequate institutional arrangements, convergence in all stakeholders'
efforts and above all, ranking-based public competition among the districts
by setting up a real-time monitoring mechanism.
Direct Benefits Transfer
Direct Benefits Transfer (DBT) aims to develop a governance regime
which ensures a simple and user-friendly Government to People (G2P)
interface and directly delivers entitlements to eligible individuals and
households in a fair, transparent, efficient and reliable manner. It helps
in achieving multiple benefits. First of all, it cuts down the multiple
layers for delivery of any benefit. Secondly, it reduces the delay in
Thirdly it helps in accurate targeting of the beneficiaries and
finally it facilitates curbing pilferage and duplication of beneficiaries.
Civil Service, Legal, Judicial and Police Reforms
A major area of governance reforms is the reorientation of the
administrative set up, legal/ judicial system and maintaining law and order.
With change in the socio- economic fabric, emergence of new mechanisms of
service delivery and over 2.7 crore cases pending in various courts, this is
an area requiring urgent attention.
NITI Aayog, in its document on New India @75, has made a number of
suggestions in the areas of civil Service, legal/judicial and police
Civil Service Reforms
Improve the teeth to tail ratio and promote an officer-oriented
Reduce the number of current 60 plus separate civil services at
the central and state level through rationalization and harmonization of
Encourage lateral entry by inducting specialists especially at
Bring down entry age in civil services.
Strengthen municipal cadres and outsource service delivery in
Develop an inclusive citizen-centric framework in terms of service
delivery, grievance redressal and public access to information with enhanced
use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT).
Ensure probity in governance by strengthening institutional mechanisms
for prevention and detection of corruption, while at the same time protect
honest civil servants.
Create a repository of all existing central and state laws, rules
Repeal redundant laws and remove restrictive clauses in existing
Reform criminal justice procedural laws with focus on
Reduce the criminalization of violations, and move towards
compounding of minor offences.
Prioritize court process automation and ICT enablement for
electronic court and case management.
Introduce an administrative cadre in the judicial system.
Modernising police forces and implementing the Model Police Act of
States to ensure greater representation of women in the police
Introduction of remodeled training modules, refresher courses and
continuing education for police personnel.
Reform of the First Information Report (FIR) lodging mechanism,
including introducing filing e-FLRs for minor offences.
Launch a common nation-wide emergency contact number to attend to
emergency security needs of citizens.
Instituting a separate cadre for cyber- crimes, cyber threats and
To ensure a New India by 2022, some fundamental principles may
need to be prioritized. These include making services available to the
public in a faceless, paperless and cashless mode; providing connectivity
and digital identity to all; targeting benefits through Aadhaar enabled DBT;
simplifying forms and processes and providing e-platforms.
Every Ministry/Department needs to have a closer look at the
schemes, its implementation, monitoring and evaluation framework with thrust
on outcomes, not mere outputs or expenditure incurred.
Wherever possible, ICT and in due course.
Artificial Intelligence should be used for better outcomes. Likewise civil
society, corporates, markets and citizens at large need to be involved in
Artificial Intelligence can, in due course, play a major role in
better implementation. At the same time, portals such as Centralized Public
Grievance Redressal and Monitoring System (CPGRAMs), the Unified Mobile
Application for New-age Governance (UMANG) and the MyGov need to be made
more effective in information exchange, seeking feedback and addressing the
grievances of citizens.
To summarize, good governance needs to continue being the
cornerstone of various initiatives.
Once implemented in letter and spirit, the goals set for not only
New India 2022, but also Sustainable Development Goals 2030 will be in the
greater realm of achievement, more sooner than later.