India at UNFCCC COP 25


The Union Minister for Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEF&CC), Information & Broadcasting and Heavy Industries & Public Enterprises Shri Prakash Javadekar delivered India’s Statement at the 25th session of Conference of Parties under the UN framework convention of Climate Change (UNFCCC COP 25), in Madrid, Spain on 10 December, 2019.

Following is the Statement (Excerpts):

  • The Government of Spain for hosting COP 25.
  • India has reduced emissions intensity of GDP by 21 percent and is on track to achieve the goal of 35% emissions reduction as promised in Paris.
  • Prime Minister Modi announced 175 GigaWatts targets for renewable under the Paris Agreement. We have already achieved 83 Giga Watts. The Prime Minister has subsequently increased the target to 450 Giga Watts at the recent UN Climate Action Summit.
  • To simultaneously progress on solar, biomass and wind energy. We have put carbon tax on coal production at the rate of Dollars 6 per tonne. Even with 36 parties represented in Parliament, we could achieve this unanimously.
  • The headline is that a commercial flight was operated on 100 percent biofuel and we are targeting blending of 20% ethanol in petrol by 2030.
  • We have leapfrogged from Bharat Standard IV to Bharat Standard VI for vehicle emission norms and from 1 April, 2020, vehicles will be BS VI compliant.
  • 360 million LED bulbs have been fitted in homes, and 10 million conventional street lights have been replaced with LED lights. There is also a strong push for use of e-vehicles by introducing multiple policy interventions and incentives.
  • We have provided 80 million LPG gas connections replacing conventional firewood cooking stoves. Our cooling action plan and adaptation plan are working well and will achieve our targets.
  • We have promised the creation of additional carbon sinks of 2.5 to 3 billion tonnes of carbon equivalent through increasing green cover. In the last five years, our green cover has increased by 15,000 sq. km. We are undertaking special projects like urban forests, school nursery, agroforestry, water and fodder augmentation in the forest area.
  • India prioritises adaptation as an integral part of climate actions. Therefore, India will be investing about 50 million dollars in water conservation. India has taken up a target for restoration of 26 million of degraded land by 2030 during the 14th COP of UN Convention to Combat Desertification in Delhi. This is one of the largest programs in the world to ensure carbon sink in land resources.
  • 100% neem coating of urea fertilizer is appreciated by the world and 170 million soil health cards are taking care of the soil health, thus creating more carbon sinks.
  • Internationally, we launched the Coalition for Disaster Resilient Infrastructure which is a partnership to support countries through knowledge exchange and provide technical support on developing disaster and climate resilient infrastructure.
  • Only 6 countries are on track to meet their NDCs announced in Paris.
  • Sustainable lifestyle is a part of the ethos of India. It is time for reflection and assessment as we near the end of Pre-2020 period. It is time to look in the mirror. Has the developed world delivered on its promises? Unfortunately, annexed countries have not met their Kyoto Protocol targets.
  • Neither their NDCs reflect ambitions nor have they shown willingness to enhance their commitments. I propose that we have three more years to fulfill pre-2020 commitments till the global stocktake takes place for bridging emission gaps.

Important issue of finance:

  • Developed world promised 1 trillion dollar in the last 10 years, and not even 2 percent has materialised. It has to be public finance and there should be no double accounting.
  • The world that benefited from carbon emissions that made them developed, must repay. Technology development and transfer at affordable costs is crucial for developing countries. If we are dealing with a disaster, nobody should profit from it. So, my proposal is to have more joint research and collaboration, grant finance made available for meeting the targets.
  • COP 25 is an important step in our collective journey towards a clean, green and healthy planet.
  • Market and non-market mechanisms play an important role. We expect that guidelines for Article 6 will ensure transition of Clean Development Mechanism under Kyoto Protocol and provide the incentives and positive signals to private sector, which had invested in it.
  • We also urge support for the vulnerable communities worldwide with a strong Warsaw International Mechanism for Loss and Damage with provision for financial support.


  • This is the time for ownership and this is the time for responsible action. India has and will continue to do its bit – expecting commensurate multilateral action with developed countries taking the lead.

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