(GIST OF YOJANA) Integrated approach For Holistic Well-Being
Integrated approach For Holistic Well-Being
- The healthcare system in India is designed to maintain a continuum of care through the primary, secondary, and tertiary levels of care. There is a significant functional relationship between all three levels of care, and their interdependency is inevitable to ensure health for all. For instance, the national rural Health Mission (NRHM), now known as the national Health Mission (nHM), was initially steered with a selective primary care approach focusing on reproductive and child Health and communicable diseases, especially among vulnerable groups. notwithstanding major gains, a shortcoming was that the selective package could no longer address the changing population needs and the growing burden of mortality and morbidity due to non-communicable diseases.
- The Ayushman Bharat initiative, launched in 2018, comprising Health and Wellness centres (ABHWcs) and the Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana (AB-PMJAY), has been instrumental in addressing healthcare challenges and reducing healthcare costs. AB-HWcs deliver comprehensive primary healthcare services and wellness activities to the community, while PMJAY offers free hospitalization and inpatient services to the poor and vulnerable. These initiatives have successfully brought quality healthcare closer to people, with an increased focus on women, children, and the elderly.
- Under the Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana (PMJAY), financial protection is provided to 40% of the eligible population across 33 states and union territories. Over 23 crore Ayushman cards were created, and it has empanelled over 28,368 hospitals to provide a higher level of care.
- The scheme has evolved substantially to now encompass services for 1,949 procedures, including diagnostics, organ and tissue transplant procedures, and palliative care. since its launch, PMJAY has successfully authorised over 5 crore admissions, amounting to over Rs 61,807 crore; thus saving lives and easing the financial burden of the poor.
- The Ayushman Bharat Digital Mission (ABDM) was launched to develop and support the integrated digital health infrastructure of the country. significant investments of over Rs. 200 crore were made in expanding the health infrastructure under ABDM. The Mission facilitates the nation’s participation in the digital health ecosystem through the creation of Ayushman Bharat Health Accounts (ABHA).
- The ABHA iD intends to establish a unique identity across different healthcare providers, link all healthcare benefits ranging from public health programmes to insurance schemes to the iD, facilitate ease of registration in healthcare facilities across the country, and create longitudinal health records for health data sharing. over 40.22 crore ABHA iDs have been created, and over 27.48 crore health records have been linked as of June 2023.
Pandemic response and preparedness
- India’s response to the covid-19 pandemic showcased its global leadership and resilience. The nation rapidly expanded its testing capacity to over 3388 labs, 821 government and 1,487 private rt-Pcr labs, 1,115 cartridge labs, and 53 genome sequencing labs by 2022. The Atmanirbhar Bharat initiative facilitated competition in the diagnostic market and brought down the cost of diagnostic commodities from Rs. 1,727 in
2020 to Rs. 72 in 2021.
- Health infrastructure like covid centres, icu beds, ventilators, oxygen concentrators, and PsA plants for oxygen generation were made available in an expedited manner.
- Based on the learnings from the pandemic, the country opted for a ‘whole of society’ approach to develop a holistic health ecosystem across levels of care through the largest pan-India infrastructure scheme—the Pradhan Mantri Ayushman Bharat Health infrastructure Mission (PMABHiM).
- PMABHiM focuses on expediting the capacities of health institutions across all levels of care to strengthen infrastructure, surveillance, diagnosis, management, and research.
- Tapping on the gains, redressing deficiencies, and instituting innovations and best practices for preparedness is the way forward in creating a resilient and self-sufficient India. Ayushman Bharat, as a game changer, comes across as a much-needed booster to reinforce the public health functions for optimal crisis management while safeguarding the delivery of routine and essential health services across the levels, thus making our districts and states self-reliant, and our country totally self dependent.
Human resources for Health (HRH)
- Recognising the importance of skilled healthcare professionals, the government has made significant strides in increasing medical and nursing education capacities. The number of undergraduate and postgraduate medical education seats has grown substantially.
- Since 2014, key strategies undertaken by the government of India have resulted in increased availability of skilled HRH in the public health system. The country currently has over 1.07 lakh undergraduate seats for medical education. There has been a 67% increase in medical colleges, a 93% increase in undergraduate seats, and a 105% increase in postgraduate seats. Distribution, availability, and accessibility of HRH, especially among doctors, continue to vary across the country, yet there is an increase in overall in-place HRH.
Mental Health and Wellbeing
- The national Mental Health survey of India highlighted a 70-92% treatment gap for various mental health disorders. The covid-19 pandemic further emphasised the need for a digital mental health network. in response, the government introduced tele-MAnAs, the digital arm of the District Mental Health Programme. With 42 established tele-Manas cells, the initiative has already received over 1.5 lakh calls.
- Providing anonymous support helps individuals seek assistance for their mental health concerns while reducing the associated stigma. Together, we are bridging the gap and fostering a healthier society.
- The enhanced capacity of the healthcare system for both routine and emergency services is a clear outcome of the heightened prioritization given to the healthcare sector. in the past decade, there has been a significant increase in per capita government health expenditure, witnessing a growth of 74%. Additionally, government-financed health insurance has experienced a substantial rise of 167%. Moreover, there has been a notable decline of 16 per cent points in out-of-pocket spending on health since FY 2013-14. These statistics demonstrate concerted efforts to strengthen the healthcare system and alleviate the financial burden on individuals seeking medical services.
Acknowledging the Benefits of Traditional Medicines
- traditional medicine systems offer a unique approach to healthcare, focusing on prevention, natural remedies, and mind-body-spirit balance. Recognising the effectiveness of traditional medicine in managing chronic conditions and promoting well-being, the government has taken steps to integrate these practices into the mainstream healthcare system. This integration of knowledge and expertise has led to the development of standardized protocols, evidence-based guidelines, and safe and effective traditional medicine formulations.
- The Ministry of Ayush (Ayurveda, Yoga & naturopathy, unani, siddha, and Homoeopathy) is vital in promoting traditional medicine in India. it collaborates with allopathic institutions, research organisations, and healthcare professionals to facilitate an integrated approach to healthcare delivery. Establishing Ayush Wellness centres across the country has made traditional medicine accessible to a wider population, complementing allopathic healthcare services.
Integrating traditional medicine and allopathy in India signifies a transformative step towards holistic well-being. This synergistic approach combines the respective strengths of both systems, providing patients with comprehensive care that addresses their physical, mental, and spiritual needs.