•  The Prime Minister has set a target for India to be a S5 trillion economy by 2024. A key enabler to this is having the requisite skilled manpower in the various sectors that would drive this growth. India has a distinct advantage today over its competitors in terms of the age of working population. With half of its population below the age of 25, the country has the world’s youngest population.
  •  Along with this, India is also slated to go through a phase of sharp slowdown in population growth in the next two decades, as pointed out in the Economic Survey for 2018-19. This means that while the country as a whole will enjoy the “demographic dividend” phase, parts of it will witness the transition to ‘an ageing society by the 2030s’.
  •  The big challenge today, therefore, is of converting this transition into a dividend - the number of those gainfully contributing to economic growth equalling the number of those dependant on them.
  • There are various processes and pathways to do this.
  •  The first of these is education. Education for all, expansion of higher education and specific professional courses like architecture, law, medical, engineering and others are the key initiatives.
  •  The second is skill development for entry-level jobs for those either in education or in employment or out of education and employment.
  •  The third is add- skilling, that is upskilling and reskilling those who have been educated and have worked or are working, or those who have worked and out of job to meet the skill requirements of the new jobs or changed jobs.
  •  According to the Economic Survey, ‘the working-age population in the country will grow by roughly 97 lakh per year during the coming decade and 42 lakh per year in the 2030s’.
    Key Central and State-Specific Skill Development Programmes


  •  Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana
  •  SkillsAcquisition and Knowledge Awareness for Livelihood Promotion (SANKALP)
  •  UDAAN (Special industry initiative for J and K)
  •  Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Kendra
  •  Recognition of Prior Learning
  •  Apprenticeship training
  •  National Apprenticeship
  •  Promotion Scheme
  •  Craftsmen Training Scheme
  •  DeenDayal Upadhyaya Grameen Kaushalya Yojana
  •  Deendayal Antyodaya Yojana
  •  Samarth (Textile Sector)
  •  Modular Employable Skill under Skill Development Initiative
  •  Green Skill Development Programme
  •  Skill Development for PwDs (SIPDA)
  •  Sub-Mission on Polytechnics under the Coordinated Action for Skill Development
  •  Establishment of Centres for Training and Research in Frontier Areas of Science and Technology (Fast)
  •  Scheme for Higher Education Youth in Apprenticeship and Skills
  •  Skill Development for Minorities (Special Programmes)
  •  Scckho aur Kamao (Learn and Earn)
  •  Upgrading the Skills and Training in Traditional Arts/Crafts for Development (USTTAD)
  •  Nai Manzil
  •  Maulana Azad National Academy for Skills

Select State-Specific Programmes:

  •  Mukhya Mantri Kaushal Samvardhan Yojana (MMKSY) – Madhya Pradesh
  •  Kushal Yuva Program– Bihar
  •  Mukhya Mantri Shram Shakti Yojana– Bihar
  •  Kaushalkar.com – Karnataka
  •  Kaushalya Vardhan Kendra (KVK) – Gujarat
  •  SURYA – Haryana
  •  SAKSHAM – Haryana
  •  Seckho-Sikhao (Training of Trainers) – Haryana
  •  S-Mart(Skill Mart) – Haryana

    UPSC Pre General Studies Study Material

Various Skill development schemes in detail

  •  A comprehensive skill development programme has been implemented in the last five years with the setting up of the Ministry for Skill Development and Entrepreneurship (MSDE) in November 2014. The Government formulated the National Policy on Skill Development and Entrepreneurship, 2015, under which the Skill India Mission by 2022 was formulated.
  •  The Skill India initiative was launched in 2015. A flagship programme Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana (PMKVY) is aimed at mobilising the youth to take up industry-relevant skill training and recognise and certify prior learning.
  •  PMKVY’s first version, launched in 2015. had a target to train 1 crore youth by 2020. During 2015-16, 19.8 lakh youth were trained as against the target of 24 lakh.
  •  Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana (PMKVY) 2016-2020 was launched under MSDE in 2016. More than 3crore people have been trained under Skill India, and more than 50
  •  lakh candidates so far under PMKVY.
  •  PMKVY’s second version for 2016-20 brought in mandatory provisions for placement tracking and achieved 54 per cent placement, about 12.05 lakh candidates, in the short-term training. Of the 30 lakh candidates who enrolled, 27.9 lakh were trained.
  •  Under Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Kendra (PMKK), launched in 2015 to set up aspirational model training centres in every district, 851 PMKKs have been allocated and 601 PMKKs have already been established till June 2019.
  •  National Apprenticeship Promotion Scheme was initiated in 2016 to promote apprenticeship with provision for basic training and on the-job training or practical training at workplace. Till June 2019, 1 1.87 lakh candidates and 76,860 establishments have registered under the scheme.
  •  SANKALP, launched in 2017, aims to create convergence among all skill training activities, improve the quality of skill development programmes and create industry-led and demand-driven skill training capacity. As on December 2018, the process of disbursement of funds to States and UTs is underway. Regional workshops with States and UTs are also being held to facilitate roll out.
  •  STRIVE, another initiative launched in 2017, aims to create awareness through industry clusters, integrate and enhance delivery quality of ITIs.
    NSDC Contribution
  •  The NSDC, one of its kind. Public-Private Partnership Company has acted as a catalyst in skill development. It has engaged in 235 private sector partnerships for training and capacity Riding - each to train at least 50,000 persons over a 10-year period. FICCI is a shareholder of NSDC.


  •  The impact analysis of the short-term training under PMKVY on employment shows that training and certification has led to a nine percentage point increase in proportion of employed individuals.
  •  The training part alone has contributed eight percentage points on employability. In terms of income, PMKVY training and certification has contributed 15 per cent to the mean monthly income. The training part had an impact of 9 per cent, as mean monthly income of PMKVY trained individuals was seen to be Rs. 8283 as compared to Rs. 7584 of the comparison group. Certification has been found to have an impact of 9 per cent on the mean monthly income.
  •  Also, assessment of the impact of the recognition of prior learning on income indicated a significant difference of 19 per cent in the mean monthly income of certified candidates.
  •  Many training organisations, even though not training under the PMKVY or other Government programmes, have started using these qualifications to meet the needs of employers. Universities and colleges are doing add on programmes with the Skill Councils to make students work ready or to do programmes for those in work to upskill them.
  •  There are also changes on the anvil. The New Education Policy aims to introduce skills in schools, colleges and Universities. The MSDE is in the process of restructuring the NQSF and the National Council for Vocational Training. There are also discussions on revamping the PMKVY.