(GIST OF YOJANA) Solid Waste Management: The Way
Solid Waste Management: The Way
- Solid Waste Management is a major problem in India, where urbanisation,
industrialisation, and economic growth have resulted in increased municipal
solid waste (MSW) generation. The burgeoning population and the improvement
in living standards of the people have only compounded this problem.
- Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change (MoEFandCC) notified
MSW (Management and Handling) Rules, 2000 and the revamped Solid Waste
Management Rules in 2016 to ensure proper solid waste management in India.
Various initiatives arc being taken in different parts of the country,
however, a lot still remains to be done to comprehensively address the issue
related to Solid Waste Management.
- Solid Waste Management Rules, 2016 delineate the responsibility of the
different stakeholders including the MoEFandCC, Ministry of Housing and
Urban Affairs, (MoHUA), Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), State
Pollution Control Boards (SPCBs), State Urban Departments, Urban Local
bodies. Gram Panchayats, as well as the waste generators. Whereas MoHUA,
State Urban Departments and Local Bodies have mainly been entrusted with the
responsibility of development of infrastructure related to waste management,
MoEFandCC, CPCB, SPCB, and Pollution Control Committee (PCC) have been
entrusted with the responsibility of monitoring the enforcement of the
Rules. The responsibility of the waste generator lies essentially in proper
segregation of the waste which is the core requirement of effective solid
waste management. The Rules demarcate the requirements of the key components
of the solid waste management system besides fixing the timeline for
achieving the same.
SWM- Key Components: The key components of SWM system include the following:
- Stage 1: Segregation of waste by waste generator into dry and wet
- Stage 2: Door-to-door collection of waste and transportation of
- Stage 3: Setting up of material recovery facilities for dry waste
to recover recyclables like plastic, paper, metal, glass, etc.;
- Stage 4: Setting up of waste processing facilities, viz.,
compost, biomethanation and waste-to-energy plants for resource recovery and
energy generation; and
- Stage 5: Setting up of waste disposal facilities- Landfills. The
main objective of an efficient
- SWM system is to maximise resource recovery and energy generation from
waste in the processing facility (Stage 4) and minimise waste disposal in
landfills, which weighs heavily on our ever-shrinking land resources and
also is a potential source of air, soil and water contamination. The primary
requirement of all waste processing facilities (Stage 4) is segregation of
waste into wet and dry waste.
- If the waste is not being collected, segregated, and transported
properly, recycling of waste is not feasible and the waste ends up at
landfills (Stage 5). Also, the waste processing plants are not able to
function at optimum level if they have to process mixed waste including
CandD (Construction and Demolition) waste. The segregation, collection, and
transportation scheme is to be further synchronised to meet the requirement
of the waste processing facilities catering to the area.
- Status of Solid Waste Management The overall solid waste generated in
the country has been estimated to be 1,52,076 Tons per day (TPD) as perthe
Annual Report 2018-19 submitted
by the SPCBs/PCCs. Of this, 1,49,748 TPD of waste is collected which is
98.5% of the total waste generated.
- However, only 55,759 TPD (35%) of waste is treated, and 50,161 TPD (33%)
of waste is landfilled and 46,156 TPD of waste which is one third of the
total waste generated in the country remains unaccounted.
An overview of SVVM status in the country is given as:
- Source segregation initiated in 24 States/UTs;
- Operational in 22 States/UTs;
- 25 States/UTs procured land for waste SWM facilities;
- Waste processing facilities set up - 2028; Waste processing operational
- 160; and
- Landfill sites identified - 1161/Operational- 37.
- The unaccounted waste is littered on streets or lands up in dumpsites.
There are presently 3,159 dumpsites in the country which arc a major source
of groundwater contamination and air pollution.
- Also, they have issues related to fires, stability, and depreciated
aesthetics. Recently, with the National Green Tribunal’s (NGT) intervention,
biomining (a method for stabilisation of waste so as to minimise its adverse
environmental impact) of these dumpsites, has been initiated in 11 States.
1. Initiatives taken by CPCB: CPCB has prepared the following guidelines
which are uploaded on its website:
- Guidelines on Legacy Waste;
- Guidelines on Buffer Zone;
- Guidelines for the Management of Sanitary Waste; and
- Selection Criteria for Waste Processing Technologies.
- Further, CPCB has issued directions to the concerned authorities for SWM
Rules compliance and imposed environmental compensation on
2. Initiatives taken by States/Union Territories: Some of the States and
UTs such as Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, Daman and Diu, and Goa have achieved
maximum compliance with respect to provisions of SWM Rules, whereas a lot needs
to be done in case of the remaining States/UTs. Initiatives taken by
Chhattisgarh State are as follows:
- Door-to-door collection, waste segregation, and transportation in
covered vehicles completed in all ULBs;
- Land for waste processing facilities identified in all 168 ULBs;
- No sanitary landfills planned- 166 ULBs have Solid and Liquid Resource
Management (SLRM)centres and 2 ULBs have Compost/Refuse-derived fuel (RDF)
- SLRMs planned for Gram Panchayats;
- Bioremediation/capping completed in 160 ULBs/Remaining 8 to be covered
by 2021; and
- Municipal bye-laws for levying spot fine for littering framed.
3. Setting up of Waste-to Energy Plants:Four waste-to energy plants have
been set-up in the country of which three plants arc in Delhi. Electricity
generated by these plants is purchased by the power regulators and is fed to the
national grid. Several other such plants arc in the pipeline in different parts
of the country.
4. Development of Model Cities: Model cities which include Pune
(Maharashtra), Indore (Madhya Pradesh), and Ambikapur (Chhattisgarh) have been
developed which have implemented efficient methods for collection, segregation,
and waste processing facilities. They have also implemented efficient methods
for remediation of dumpsites and reclaimed land from the same.
5. Increased Judicial Intervention: After the enactment of the NGT Act
2010. In the past few years we have seen increasing judicial intervention in
ensuring compliance with the provisions of SVVM Rules by the various
stakeholders, specifically the State authorities. Some of the major Orders
issued by the NGT include:
(a) Vide order dated 22-12-16 in OA 199/2014. Almitra H. Patel and Anr. Vs.
Union of India and Ors. NGT directed as follows:
- Every State and Union Territory shall enforce and implement the Solid
Waste Management Rules 2016 in all respects and without any further delay.
- All the State Governments and Union Territories shall prepare an action
plan in terms of the Rules of 2016 and the directions in this judgment,
within four weeks from the date of pronouncement of the judgment.
- It shall be mandatory to segregate prior to incineration relatable to
the quantum of the waste.
- It shall be mandatory to provide for a butler /one around plants and
- It will be obligatory on the part of the State, local authorities to
create a market for consumption of RDF.
- The landfill sites shall be subjected to bio stabilization within six
months from the date of pronouncement of the order.
- There shall be complete prohibition on open burning of waste on lands,
including at landfill sites.
(b) NGT vide order dated 5.3.19 in OA 606/2018 directed Chief Secretaries of
all States/Union Territory for the following:
- Steps for compliance of Rules 22 and 24 of SWM be now taken within six
weeks to the extent not yet taken. Similar 23 steps be taken with regard to
Bio-Medical Waste Management Rules and Plastic Waste Management Rules.
- At least three major cities and as many major towns as possible in the
State and at least three Panchayats in every District may be notified on the
website within two weeks from today (22-12-l6)... as model
cities/towns/villages which will be made fully compliant within the next six
months (from 22-12-16).
- The remaining cities, towns and Village Panchayats of the State may be
made fully compliant in respect of environmental norms within one year.
- A quarterly report be furnished by the Chief Secretary, every three
months. First such report shall be furnished by July 10, 2019.
- The Chief Secretary may personally monitor the progress, at least once
in a month, with all the District Magistrates.
- The District Magistrates or other officers may be imparted requisite
- The District Magistrates may monitor the status of compliance of
environmental norms, at least once every two weeks.
- Performance audit of the functioning of all regulatory bodies may be
conducted and remedial measures be taken, within six months.
- Vide Order dated July 17.7.19 in OA No. 519/2019 with Original
Application No.386/2019, Hon’ble NGT has ordered Biomining of all three
dumpsites in Delhi namely Ghazipur, Bhalswa, and Okhla.
The various challenges faced in implementation of SWM Rules include the
- Segregation of waste at source by waste generators;
- Lack of infrastructure for collection and transportation of waste;
- Availability of land for setting up of waste collection and
- Budgetary provisions for (ii and iii) above;
- Techno-economically viable solutions for fresh and legacy Waste;
- Management of legacy waste;
- Rural areas not covered in most of the States/UTs; and
- Enforcement issues.
As availability of land, lack of infrastructure, and availability of
financial resources serve as a major impediment for SWM, focus of the SWM is to
maximise resource recovery from waste so as to facilitate the availability of
these resources for efficient SWM. The major steps in this direction would
- Creating public awareness for involvement of different stakeholders for
- Development of ULB-wise action plan for collection, segregation,
transportation and processing of waste. Inputs from model cities like
Indore, Ambikapur, and Pune may be taken for development and implementation
of these plans;
- Emphasising on setting up of waste processing facilities rather than
waste disposal facilities as in the case of Chhattisgarh;
- Giving fillip to research and development activities with a focus on
resource recovery from waste; Capacity building in various regimes of SWM;
- Laying down of an appropriate governance framework at State and district
- Clear allocation of responsibility to ULBs and waste generators for
setting up of infrastructure and for involving informal sector in waste
- Adequate technical support to ULBs for processing technology and best
practices in waste management.