Indian space activities began in 1962 with the establishment of the Indian National Committee for Space Research (INCOSPAR). In 1969, the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) was formed, superseding INCOSPAR. Subsequently, in 1972, the Department of Space (DOS) was created to oversee the development and application of space technology to meet various national needs.
Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO)
ISRO’s primary objective is the development and application of space technology to meet various national needs. ISRO has established several space systems for communication, television broadcasting, meteorological services, resource monitoring, and more.
PSLV and GSLV are two trusted launch vehicles developed by ISRO.
Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre:
Responsible for the design and development of launch vehicle technology.
Major programs include the development of the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV), Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV), Launch Vehicle Mark-3 (LVM3), Rohini sounding rocket, Small Satellite Launch Vehicle, and critical technologies for human spaceflight missions.
U R Rao Satellite Centre (URSC)
Involved in the design, development, and realisation of communication, navigation, remote sensing, and scientific satellite missions.
The ISRO Satellite Integration and Test Establishment is equipped for assembling and testing spacecraft for flightworthiness.
Satish Dhawan Space Centre (SDSC) – SHAR
Location: Andhra Pradesh
Provides launch base infrastructure for Indian space programs.
Liquid Propulsion System Centre (LPSC)
Locations: Campus-1: LPSC, Valiyamala, Thiruvananthapuram, and Campus-2 LPSC Bengaluru
Engaged in the design, development, and realisation of high-performance advanced propulsion systems for launch vehicles and spacecraft.
Space Application Centre (SAC):
Focuses on the development of space-borne and air-borne instruments and payloads for national development. It designs and develops optical and microwave sensors for satellites, signal and image processing software, and GIS software for Earth observation programs.
Human Space Flight Centre (HSFC)
Established in 2019, it coordinates all developments related to human spaceflight programs.
National Remote Sensing Centre (NRSC)
It has a mandate for the establishment of ground stations for receiving satellite data, generation of data products, dissemination to the users, development of techniques for remote sensing applications including disaster management support, geospatial services for good governance and capacity building.
ISRO Propulsion Complex
Responsible for the assembly, integration, and testing of liquid propulsion systems for launch vehicles. It provides a platform for simulation trials for interplanetary missions.
ISRO Telemetry Tracking and Command Network (ISTRAC)
Provides telemetry tracking and command and mission control services to major launch vehicles, interplanetary spacecraft missions of ISRO and the ground segment of the NaVIC satellite system.
Master Control Facility (NCF)
Location: Hassan, Karnataka and Bhopal
Responsible for On-Orbit Operations (OOP) and Launch and Early Orbit Phase (LEOP) operations of geostationary/geosynchronous and IRNSS class spacecraft of ISRO. It monitors and controls all the geostationary satellites of ISRO.
ISRO Inertial Systems Unit (IISU)
Engaged in the design and development of inertial systems for launch vehicles and satellites.
Laboratory for Electro-Optics Systems (LEOS)
Involved in the design, development, and production of attitude sensors, high-resolution image optics, and special-purpose science instruments.
Indian Institute of Remote Sensing (IIRS)
Focuses on building capacity in remote sensing and geoinformatics through education and training programs at the postgraduate level.
Development and Educational Communication Unit (DEUC)
Implementation of satellite communication-based societal applications in the country. It works with user agencies and facilitates the spread of space applications to reach the unreached.
Physical Research Laboratory (PRL)
A premier research institute engaged in basic research in the areas of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Solar Physics, Planetary Science, and Exploration.
PRL has an infrared observatory at Mt. Abu, a solar observatory in Udaipur and a planetary exploration (PLANEX) programme at Ahmedabad.
National Atmospheric Research Laboratory (NARL)
Location: Gandaki, Tirupati
Engaged in atmospheric and space science with the vision of developing the capability to predict the behaviour of Earth’s atmosphere.
North Eastern Space Application Centre (NE-SAC)
Location: Shillong, Meghalaya
An autonomous organisation under the Department of Science, with the aim of supporting the development process in the North Eastern region through advanced space technology.
Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology (IIST)
First established in Thiruvananthapuram in 2007.
Offers high-quality education in space science and technology to meet the demands of the Indian Space Program.
Antrix Corporation Limited (ACL)
Corporate Office: Bengaluru
Engaged in providing space sector products and services to customers globally.
New Space India Limited (NSIL)
A wholly-owned government of India undertaking to provide space-related products and services from the Indian Space Program to global customers and promote the growth of the Indian space sector.
Know more about New Space India Limited in the linked article.
Indian National Space Promotion and Authorisation Centre (IN-SPACe)
An autonomous agency under the Department of Space (DOS), responsible for promoting, enabling, authorising, and supervising various space activities of non-governmental entities, including the building of launch vehicles and satellites and providing space-based services.