The term 'Topography' is broadly used to describe the detailed study of the earth's surface. It is about the physical features of an area of land. These include mountain, valleys, rivers lakes, seas and oceans as well as man made physical changes like roads, bridges, dams, railway lines and cities.

An objective of topography is to determine the position of any feature such as latitude, longitude, and altitude. It is closely linked to the practice of surveying, which is the practice of determining and recording the position of points in relation to one another. Topographic maps are used by civil engineers, environmental managers, and urban planners, as well . as by outdoor enthusiasts, emergency services agencies and historians. A topographic map is a two-dimensional representation of a three-dimensional land surface. With a combination of contour lines, colours, symbols, labels, and other graphical representations, topographic maps portray the shapes and locations of natural and man-made features on the earth surface.

The widely used technique of topography is Direct Survey. In this process levelling instruments like the odolites are used to measure distances and angles. It generates the basic data for all topographic mapping, including digital imaging systems. This information can be used in conjunction with other systems such as aerial photography or satellite imagery to get a complete picture of a particular surface or piece of land. Ocean is measured through Sonar mapping in which a pulse of sound is sent through the water from an underwater speaker. The WWW.IASEXAMPORTAL.COM Sound waves are reflected by objects in the water,

SR-the Harbinger for Empowerment such as the ocean bottom, coral beds, or a submarine. These sounds are measured by microphones. The time that the echo takes to return is proportional to the distance of the reflecting object. This data allows changes in the underwater terrain to be mapped.

Due to advancement of techniques, now the Global Positioning System (GPS) backed by a well- established network of navigational satellites allows field surveyors to determine horizontal positions accurately within a few feet, even in the most remote terrain where conventional surveying techniques are impossible. 3-D rendering uses satellite or aerial images to produce a three-dimensional model using computer software. Aerial photography and photogrammetry combine photos from different angles and use the process of triangulation to calculate the location of elements. Other satellites carrying a variety of sensors may soon replace the aerial photography method of making maps. This

Empowerment of the Marginalized is the improvement of their socio economic status by developing and building capacities and improving quality of life. This is the key responsibility of the government, but corporate sector initiatives are required for scale, speed and creating best practices for others to emulate. Businesses concentrate on a particular community where they are located, so it is easier for them to understand the issues, challenges and the ensuing opportunities for the marginalized that can be garnered through CSR project.

Government flagship programmes like Make in India, Start-up India, Skill India and Digital India can be promoted by the CSR projects. These programmes have a cascading effect in empowering the marginalized in many ways as these interventions make them more educated and skillful and generate massive job opportunities. would significantly reduce the time required to produce or update maps and would improve the overall accuracy as well.

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